Voices and body language are the two most important ways penguins communicate with each other. The type of call depends on the species of penguin and the message they want to communicate.
Adelie penguins use body language such as jabbing with their flippers and gazing at each other to scare other penguins away and defend their territory. Their warnings are followed by an attack, which can be beating their flippers violently.
Penguins’ body language for mating is different depending on their gender. Males who want to attract a female stand tall with their necks outstretched, make loud noises, and extend their flippers wide. Interested females imitate the behavior and raise their heads, stretching tall.
When an adult penguin returns from fishing, it uses many tricks to locate its chick, or baby penguin. They often are able to recognize the scream of their chick within the masses of others screaming simultaneously. Another tool that penguins use is to set “meeting places,” so family members can locate one another. Another different method of communication is used by the Gentoo penguin. They steal other penguin’s pebbles to give them as gifts, but this begins conflicts since pebbles are important nesting materials.
Penguins have very unique behaviors depending on the species and the messages they are trying to convey, but these behaviors are very important to their way of life.
[Source: 100 Things You Should Know About Penguins]