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How the Danish Resistance Fought Nazi Occupation with 'Illegal' Newspapers

by Allison Wallace, age 11

On April 9, 1940, Germany officially invaded and occupied Denmark, a small country in northern Europe that could not hold its own for very long. Most Danes opposed the occupation, so the Danish resistance was formed.

The Danish resistance comprised mostly young people who believed in Denmark's freedom. To update civilians on the resistance's latest news, multiple "illegal" newspapers were formed. One of the most well-known was De Frie-Danske, which translates to the Free Danes. These newspapers kept people up to date on what was going on, such as bombing Nazi supply trains and what was taking place in the war outside of Denmark. Since newspapers were deemed illegal, people often burned them after reading them. Danes kept a lot of other secrets, too. One way they accomplished this was through the use of code.

This was necessary because if the wrong people at the wrong time were to overhear them, there would be consequences. One example comes from a scene in the book Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, set during the Danish resistance. It has a character on the phone who uses cover words such as "going fishing" and "bringing cartons of cigarettes" to hide what they were actually doing, helping a Jewish character escape to Sweden by boat. [Read More]

Magellan's Expedition Was the First Circumnavigation

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

In 1519, Portugal was the first country to circumnavigate the globe. Some parts of the world could, but most were not able to circumnavigate past South America. Some parts of the world had advantages that allowed them to build ships, but other parts of the world were incapable due to the lack of resources. However, there was one person who eventually was able to circumnavigate, Ferdinand Magellan.

Becoming the first to circumnavigate the globe was not something on China’s list. Although the country was powerful and had the resources, they were more focused on protecting their people. The Barbarian invasion threat made China create better protection on its northern boundaries. Improving their protection meant rebuilding and extending the Great Wall. China’s multistoried ships were large, compared to Western ships. What stopped its people from being the first to circumnavigate the globe was the anti-marine policy that was made in the 1500s, making it a crime to build a ship with two masts or bigger, and if disobeyed would lead to death. China created this policy so none of its people could be in danger.

Apart from China, Arab Muslims wanted to be the first to circumnavigate but they faced challenges. Individual Muslims navigated the Indian Ocean for centuries which helped them master the shifting direction of the moon. Navigating the Indian Ocean made them discover that another sea, south of Africa, was linked to the Indian Ocean. The Arabian Peninsula could not produce wood, resin, iron, and textiles which were the essentials to building a ship. Not having these products gave them the defeat they did not want. Arab Muslims, not having the supplies needed, gave Spaniards an advantage. [Read More]

Can Ultrasound Waves Remove Microplastics from Water?

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

Pollution has become a big problem in today’s economy. Microplastics are a type of pollution that is really small and barely visible yet they are found in our bodies, causing a lot of damage. Microplastics can contain toxic chemicals, viruses, and bacteria.

These plastic bits are an issue for humans and wildlife. These plastics are incredibly hard to see, even smaller than a sesame seed, and no more than five millimeters wide. The bits can be found in water, air, and foods leading to their accumulation in human bodies as resources are utilized. The materials within these bits can contain toxic chemicals. Additionally, both bacteria and viruses can attach themselves to the microplastic. Wildlife can also ingest plastic bits through drinking water from rivers or the ocean. [Read More]

The Destructive Nature and Ecological Benefits of Wildfires

by Aubrey Bevenue, age 12

Wildfires have very destructive powers. Powerlines, campfires, lightning strikes, and other sources can start wildfires. Grasslands and forests are the main areas where fires can occur.

When fires reach homes, they put lives and houses in danger. For example, in 2022, wildfires in the U.S. swept through 7.5 million acres of land and burned down 1,200 homes.

Fires can kill pests. In homes and other places, some pests or animals know how to take cover from a wildfire, however, pests who are not native to the area tend to get killed when wildfires occur as they don’t know where to go or how to escape. [Read More]

Remembering Toni Morrison, USPS to Honor Renowned Novelist with Commemorative Stamp

by Riya Adhikari, age 11

Toni Morrison was a famous novelist who wrote non-fiction books about African Americans. She passed away on August 5th, 2019 at the age of 88 years old.

The United States Postal Service (USPS) is designing a stamp in honor of Toni Morrison. She wrote about the struggles of being an African American in the United States and created a voice for many people.

Toni Morrison's writing was beautifully created and artistically worded. Some of her most famous novels are “Beloved,” “The Bluest Eye,” and “Song of Solomon.” After writing some of her best work, she taught literature and writing at Princeton University for 17 years. [Read More]

Scientists Discover Fish are Self-Aware

by Jonah Smith, age 14

Humans can recognize their faces in mirrors and photos almost automatically. Ongoing research at Metropolitan University in Japan suggests that fish have the same ability. Being able to recognize your reflection or being self-aware, is an ability usually tied to intelligent animals, such as chimpanzees or humans. Finding this ability in fish suggests that self-awareness might be more common than scientists previously thought.

Previous research at Metropolitan University demonstrated that Bluestreak Cleaner Wrasses can pass a self awareness test using a mirror. To conduct the test, scientists expose an animal to a mirror for a long period of time. Once the animal gets acquainted with its reflection, scientists add a mark somewhere on its body. If the subject were to be self-aware, it would start to touch that spot on its body in hopes of getting rid of that mark. Before this research, only large-brained animals such as apes, dolphins, elephants, and magpies have passed the test.

Failing the mirror test should not be indicative of lack of self awareness. Other animals thought to have large brains, such as monkeys and ravens have not passed. Scientists also wonder if this is an appropriate test for animals who rely on other senses, or ones who don’t care about how they look. As a result of this, it makes it more surprising that a fish can recognize itself. [Read More]

Should We Add Insects to Our Diet?

by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 14

When we think about consuming bugs, most of us would immediately respond by saying, “ew!” Although bugs may look nasty or creepy, they are a good source of protein. If insects are raised and prepared correctly, the protein they carry can be beneficial for our bodies. Raising them requires less water, less land, and overall less resources than other animals.

Though a lot of us did not grow up having insects as part of our meals, scientists have been trying to figure out how to incorporate and make them appealing to humans. Many people throughout the world eat bugs as part of their culture. From ancient times, people have eaten bugs as it was believed it would give you knowledge. A common insect many have tried are crickets. These insects, like many others, are good for your body.

If you are interested in having insects as a small snack, the best option is to do research and buy them at a local grocery store. Do not go to your backyard, garden, or local park and grab them since these insects can contain chemicals and germs that are harmful to the human body. [Read More]

From the Big Bang to Humankind: How Life Emerged

by Julian Medina Ruiz, age 14

About 12 billion years ago, a big explosion, presently known as the “Big Bang,” created the universe.

The solar system we live in began to form 7.4 billion years ago. Earth was created by rock, ice, dust, and gas combining together. While forming, the Earth released an enormous amount of energy, causing the planet to heat up. For 100 million years, the components of planet Earth remained molten as they shifted into layers. Heavier minerals like iron and nickel, sank to the center and now form the dense core of the Earth, measuring 2,200 miles wide. The lighter minerals settled towards the surface of the Earth, creating its crust. The core and the crust are separated by 1,800 miles of molten rock, called the mantle. Certain lighter rocks gathered together to form “islands” or land. [Read More]

Behind the Deadly Hiroshima Bombing

by Hiba Al-Quraishi, age 14

On August 9, 1945, the United States ended World War II at a terrible human cost by dropping the “Fat Man” nuclear implosive bomb in Nagasaki. This was three days after the atomic uranium bomb named “Little Boy” had decimated Hiroshima.

As a part of the Manhattan Project, the United States created the atomic bomb. The United States’ decision to deploy an atomic weapon was seen as an alternative to its planned invasion of Japan in November 1945. The uranium bomb left Alamogordo, New Mexico, for Hiroshima on July 14, 1945, after undergoing a successful test. [Read More]

Orcas Learn to Hunt in Family Groups

by Tierra Flowers, age 13

On March 21, 2019, researchers in Western Australia were studying orcas, a species also known as killer whales. Suddenly, the scientists witnessed a phenomenon that no one had previously seen. They observed orcas killing the world’s largest animal, a blue whale.

On that day, this group of researchers from the Cetacean Research Center was traveling on a boat to their usual orca observation site. However, when they stopped to remove some trash from the water, they suddenly noticed some splashing in the distance. They observed the dorsal fins of several killer whales and saw that they were attacking a large whale species. That whale turned out to be a blue whale. [Read More]

The International Space Station Is Retiring, What Does this Mean for Space Exploration?

by Theodore Morrison, age 14

The International Space Station is considered a constant symbol of humanity's achievements in the fields of space science and diplomacy. Many will be shocked to learn that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has plans to retire and crash the station straight into the ocean in 2031.

According to The International Space Station Report, NASA is aiming to crash the ISS into the Pacific Ocean at a location called Point Nemo, the farthest point at sea from any landmass. To put the distance in perspective, it is 2,000 miles North of Antarctica and 3,000 miles East of New Zealand. The ISS will, probably, rest forever at a point known as the spacecraft graveyard. [Read More]

The Armistice Day Blizzard: Worst Winter Storm in Wisconsin History

by Theodore B. Morrison, age 14

Anyone who lives in the northern Midwest has experienced his or her fair share of snowstorms. These snowstorms though, do not compare to the Armistice Day Blizzard, one of the most devastating natural disasters in Wisconsin’s history.

The name originates from the storm which occurred on Armistice Day, now known as Veterans Day, a day that celebrated the end of World War I and a new period of peace. However, this blizzard was anything but peaceful.

The Armistice Day Blizzard on November 11 and 12, 1940 caused a drastic drop in temperature that resulted in more than 150 deaths in Wisconsin. The blizzard formed when cold northern air combined with warm moisture from the Gulf Coast, which created a sudden drop in air pressure. The storm generated winds up to 80 MPH, creating 20-foot snowdrifts, laying down a foot of snow, and conditions similar to those of a hurricane. [Read More]

Chichén Itzá Fusiona las Civilizaciones Maya y Tolteca

por Kimberly Rodríguez, de 11 años

En el siglo X d.C., la civilización Maya habitaba Chichén Itzá. Ubicado en México, este sitio era de gran importancia para los Mayas y más tarde para los guerreros Toltecas.

Los guerreros Toltecas tomaron el control de Chichén Itzá de manos del pueblo Maya y lo transformaron en una versión mejorada de su capital, Tula. El templo de los guerreros albergaba innumerables objetos tallados como piezas de arte, incluyendo motivos de jaguares y águilas para representar a los guerreros Toltecas. Esta civilización conquistadora gobernó Teotihuacán y México desde mediados del siglo X hasta mediados del siglo XII d.C.

El Castillo es conocido como un templo piramidal dedicado al dios gobernante Kukulcán. Se representa como una deidad serpiente emplumada y está tallado a lo largo de la escalera del templo. Debido a su arquitectura detallada, las sombras de la escalera delinean la serpiente descendiendo desde el templo. El ciclo de años de los Mayas también fue una parte crucial de su cultura, y lo incorporaron en el templo. [Read More]

Belle Case La Follette Was a Powerful Early Figure in the Fight for Women's Rights

by Amelia Pearson, age 12

Have you ever heard of Belle Case La Follette? She was a woman who fought for the right to vote and was a strong leader for women's equality and peace.

La Follette was born in Juneau County, Wisconsin on April 21, 1859. Her parents were farmers and they sacrificed everything to send her to college in 1875. While in college, La Follette performed well in school and also developed a passion for literature. It was also during this time that she met her future husband, Bob La Follette. Although she was four years younger than Bob, they were both in the same class. She actually ranked above him as one of the top students.

La Follette graduated in 1879 and began teaching high school while her future husband Bob studied law. The couple married in December of 1881. In 1882 La Follette had her first child, Flora Dodge. At the same time, she started to have an interest in law after working on her husband's legal work. She soon enrolled in the University of Wisconsin Law School and eventually graduated in 1885. She was the first female graduate of law school. La Follette never practiced law by herself. She did, however, continue doing legal work and was even acknowledged by the Wisconsin Chief Justice for a legal brief she wrote for her husband. [Read More]

Gladys West Used Math and Science to Map Planet Earth

by Hiba Al-Quraishi, age 14

Gladys West was a splendid mathematician. She was an African-American woman who accomplished many things during her career. Glady West is best known for developing a Global Positioning System, which today we call GPS.

“When you’re working every day, you’re not thinking ‘What impact is this going to have on the world?’ You’re thinking, I’ve got to get this right.” said Gladys West.

Gladys West was born on October 27, 1930 on a farm in southern Virginia. She spent the majority of her childhood working on her family’s farm. In addition to farm labor, her mother worked at a tobacco factory and her father worked for the railroads. West viewed her parents as an inspiration for what she became. Early on in her life, Gladys decided that she did not want to work in farms or factories like her parents. She wanted an education. [Read More]

Young Soccer Prodigy Jude Bellingham's Rise to Glory

by Oliver Zink, age 13

In the world of professional soccer, young English player Jude Bellingham is playing for Real Madrid and is a powerhouse for soccer. Bellingham started his rise at Birmingham where he achieved multiple records. He was the youngest player to play for Birmingham, along with being the youngest goalscorer at Birmingham.

Jude played in 31 games in England’s tough-as-nails second-tier championship where he started 24 games and scored four goals and got two assists. He was recognized for his excellent playing on the field and was awarded the English Soccer League’s Young Player of the Month for November. Bellingham decided to leave Birmingham and transfer to Dortmund for more opportunities.

Jude made history at Dortmund as the youngest goalscorer in the D.F.B. Cup. He also became the youngest Englishman to start in a Champions League match. Bellingham went on and got his first Bundesliga League goal against VFB Stuttgart. Four days later he became the second-youngest player to score in a Champions League match. Bellingham joined Youri Tielsman as one of the two players to make double-digit appearances in the Champions League before the age of 18. [Read More]

The Cosmic Oasis and Jupiter's Largest Moons

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

One of the three largest moons on Jupiter, named Europa, is said to be the most promising place to find alien life in our solar system today.

Recently, there was a mission launched by the European Space Agency called the Juice mission to Jupiter. The Juice mission’s main job is to make observations of Jupiter. The spacecraft's purpose is to also get close-up images of the three largest moons of Jupiter. The three largest moons are Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. They are all very icy and it is believed beneath their surfaces, there are oceans.

These moons were not discovered until the 17th century by Galileo. He also discovered a fourth moon on Jupiter named Io. This moon is hot and fiery, covered in mostly volcanoes, which are the most active out of anywhere in the solar system. Galileo discovered these four moons on Jupiter, and he realized that Earth is not the center of the universe. [Read More]

Study Reveals COVID-19 Pandemic Prematurely Aged Teen Brains

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

New MRI brain scans show that teen brains have matured beyond the years of their physical age (as much as three to four years) after the Covid-19 pandemic. This shows the importance of this time for teens’ brain development.

Scientists studying this topic were working on teen mental health before the pandemic hit, so they already had some ideas on what could have affected teens before and after. Researchers revealed that the pandemic was hard on teens, increasing anxiety and depression and prompting scientists to look at the changes that were being made to the brain.

Scientists took MRI scans from 64 teens after the pandemic. They compared the scans to different groups from before the pandemic, matched by their age and sex. The after-effects were the thickening of the hippocampus and amygdala, and the thinning of the cerebral cortex. All of these are a process of maturing for teens. This process usually takes time, but it was determined that the brain matured three to four years beyond their actual age. [Read More]

Exploring the Architectural Wonder of Istanbul's Blue Mosque

by Mahalia Pearson, age 13

The Blue Mosque is located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is an architectural masterpiece constructed and preserved since the Ottoman Empire. Its unique design, both structurally and within its interior, makes it an attraction for people worldwide.

The mosque was built as a statement piece for the Ottoman Empire's achievements and greatness. During the building process, Ahmed I declared that if anyone did not win a war, they would not partake in the building process. Due to this statement, there were many wars. Later, when the Ottoman-Safavid war occurred, the Ottomans had to give back many territories to the Persians. When they gave back these territories to the Persians, there was a debate about building the mosque because people thought it was inappropriate or violated the Divine Laws as the treasury financed the mosque instead of the war riches.

Nonetheless, in 1609, the mosque's construction began, which occurred during a time with several complications, such as drought, famine, and the absence of military victories. As these problems occurred, Ahmed, I wanted to leave a positive legacy, so he was uninterested in other duties and activities happening in the kingdom. Instead, he wanted to ensure the mosque was more significant than the Hagia Sophia and Suleymaniye. [Read More]

Explore Lake Nakuru, Kenya's Wildlife Oasis

by Malak Al Qurasihi, age 13

Lake Nakuru in Kenya is one of the world’s greatest wildlife spectacles. It is part of the Rift Valley lakes in East Africa, which vary significantly in saltiness and altitude. Despite its salty water, which limits aquatic and plant life diversity, Lake Nakuru is known for its remarkable wildlife, particularly its bird species.

The lake is famous for hosting over 100 bird species, including storks, spoonbills, and African fish eagles. These species rely on the lake as an essential feeding site during their nesting seasons. Due to the hypersaline environment, the lake sustained no fish species. However, in 1953, a salt-tolerant fish species of Tilapia was introduced to the lake. The species had to be reintroduced a couple of times since the lake went through a cycle of drying up and reflooding in the following years. The introduction of fish resulted in an increase in fish-eating bird species.

Along with birds, six species of phytoplankton have been recorded in this lake. The most common is the tiny blue-green alga called spirulina platensis. This alga occurs in vast numbers, turning the water a dark green and forming a slimy texture. This phytoplankton species is the foundation of Lake Nakuru’s food web. Five species of zooplankton, four species of water boatmen, midge larvae, and calanoid copepod from the rest of this lake's aquatic animal life. Together, the marine species in Lake Nakuru provide food for several dozen bird species – the most notable being flamingos. [Read More]

History Tells New Story of First Black American to Reach the North Pole

by Aubrey A Bevenue, age 12

Robert Peary is recognized as the first person to set foot on the North Pole. While he did not get a lot of recognition at the time, the African-American explorer, Matthew Henson was also ultimately recognized.

Matthew Henson was a skilled explorer. He was very experienced since he began his life on a merchant ship, starting when he was only 12 years old. He learned cartography and maritime astronomy while being at sea in the Arctic. He also spoke one of the main languages of people who lived near the Arctic, known as the Inuit language. Many people knew Henson as Miy Paliuk, which also translated to “Matthew, the kind one.” He also later had a son with an Inuit woman.

40 dogs pulled the sled that transported the explorers. The dogs ran for five days in freezing temperatures, and the men's faces became raw over time. Henson's accomplishments represented that African American people could also be successful. He wrote an autobiography in 1912, that talks about his success and challenges with his teammate and the journey. [Read More]

Helena Rubinstein Built a Multimillion-Dollar Beauty Empire

by Ermiyas Abiy, age 8

Have you ever wondered how the makeup and cosmetic industry started? Are you curious to know who built a multimillion-dollar beauty industry? Helena Rubinstein was one of the first women to achieve this feat.

Helena Rubinstein was born on Christmas Day, December 25, 1870. She founded a global cosmetics empire, which began her journey of becoming one of the wealthiest women in the world. She used her wealth to create a product that would become one of the most successful on the planet. The foundation, a face cream, helped women's health. The brand was named after her and still exists to this day.

Helena always found business opportunities, especially when she visited some relatives in Australia. She discovered that women's skin was damaged and drier in hot weather. She combined her cream with a family formula that improved women's skin, leading her to be even more successful. [Read More]

Virgil Van Dijk Shines as Liverpool's Star Defensive Player

by Oliver Zink, age 13

Virgil Van Dijk has shown that he is a world class defender and can compete at the highest levels in competitive soccer. He proved that by joining Liverpool in 2018 to play at a higher level after playing on smaller teams, such as Willem 11, FC Groningen, and Celtic.

The Dutch player helped Liverpool lift every major league trophy to date. He is a constant, imposing presence at the back line, while still helping up front with approximately five goals every Premier League season.

In the 2019-2020 season he won the UEFA Super Cup and a FIFA League World Cup which no one has done before. He also helped clinch a European Cup. In the 2018 season he only missed 35 minutes throughout the entire season, which is one of the lowest in the league. He was an outstanding player at the heart of the success of Liverpool, especially when the team made a comeback and beat Real Madrid securing the Champions League in 2019, after losing the year before. [Read More]

Explore the Diverse Wildlife Species of Patagonia

by Oliver Zink, age 13

There is a vibrant ecosystem in the southern half of South America called Patagonia, which is home to many different species. The landscape has some of the most beautiful land in the world, with frozen mountain peaks, deserts, and little woodlands in valleys. The diverse terrain in Patagonia not only makes it an attractive adventure spot but also a home for various species.

There are a large variety of birds in Patagonia. Most of them are predatory and carrion species, which are mainly scavengers. Some birds are the Andean Condor, the vulture, and the falcon. The region is well-suited for birds because it has bountiful food. The area has unique birds, including the Lesser Rhea, which are similar to the ostrich. Other birds in the southern regions of Patagonia include woodpeckers, geese, ducks, and even penguins.

Some mammals that live in the region are foxes and pumas. The puma is a mountain lion, but the native people call it a puma, and it has become popular. The puma is very adaptable and can live anywhere in the Americas. Their favorite prey is the guanaco, the wild forebearer of the domesticated llama. Wherever you find guanacos, you will probably find a puma nearby. [Read More]

Wisconsin's Dairy History from Wheat Fields to Cheese

by Allison Wallace, age 11

When people think about Wisconsin, most individuals think of the dairy industry, however, that was not always the case.

The cattle industry landed in the U.S. in 1707. Some cows were brought to Wisconsin by the British-American fur trade. Unlike now, these were only beef animals. In 1838 dairy cows were introduced to the state. In the 1850’s and early 1860’s, the wheat industry was much bigger than its dairy counterpart. Not many people were selling dairy to a mass market. Dairy farmers mostly traded with local stores and neighbors and used milk, butter, and cheese in their households.

This changed in the late 1860s when wheat prices fell because wheat producers struggled due to overused land, crop diseases, chinchbug infestation, and lowering prices. This allowed the dairy industry to take off. [Read More]

LED-Embedded Bandages: A Bright Future for Wound Care

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

There is a big difference between normal bandages and future LED-embedded bandages. Modern bandages are currently being developed at the University Of Southampton in England. These bandages can stop microbes from reproducing and can also kill the microbes.

These bandages are ingrained with scaled-down LED bulbs emitting UVC wavelengths, usually used for cleaning medical equipment. The UV light replaces the antibiotics often used to kill germs.

The bandage needs a battery to power the lights being emitted, so the thought of wireless powering was seen as the most practical. With wireless, will minimize the harmful chemicals coming from thrown-away batteries. [Read More]

Rosetta Nubin Was the Guitar-Playing “Godmother” of Rock and Roll

by Riya Adhikari, age 12

Rosetta Nubin was an incredible singer who mixed her church roots with the blues. Despite being dubbed "The Godmother of Rock and Roll," her achievements and diverse musical abilities remain relatively unknown.

Born on March 20, 1915, in the small town of Cotton Plant, Arkansas, Rosetta's parents were cotton workers. While her mother actively participated in the local church, little was known about her father, except that he sang during his free time.

At the age of six, Rosetta, performing religious songs alongside her mother, went by the name Little Rosetta Newbin. Renowned for her exceptional guitar-playing skills, she became exposed to the early recordings of blues queens like Ma Rainey and The Trio of Smiths: Bessie, Trixie, and Mamie. Blues, predominantly sung by females, was the era's most popular music, and Rosetta found herself immersed in it, blending it with the music of her upbringing. [Read More]

The 'Super Croc' That Could Have Hunted Dinosaurs

by Riya Adhikari, age 12

The Sarcosuchus Imperator, otherwise known as the “Super Croc,” was an ancient species of crocodile. It lived around 113 million years ago.

The Super Croc was a huge creature. Saltwater Crocodiles are big, but nothing compared to Sarcosuchus. The Super Croc was 30-40 feet long, meanwhile, male crocodiles nowadays can grow up to 25 feet, and females can be around 10 feet long.

The Sarcosuchus Imperator’s diet is believed to have had dinosaurs in it. The Super Croc had a particular way of hunting its prey. With its formidable, long, sharp, backward-pointing teeth, Super Sarco would cling onto the animal that got too close, and submerge it under the water. [Read More]

HBCU Makes History With New Ice Hockey Program

by Moore Vang, age 15

Tennessee State University (TSU) is one of the largest HBCU colleges in the U.S. and is widely known for its athletics. This includes sports such as basketball, football, tennis, and more. It has established the careers of many athletes such as Wilma Rudolph and Tiger Belle who both made track history. The university has also produced Super Bowl champion Ed Jones. TSU has established many sports for its athletes, however, they’re looking to make a huge change by becoming the first-ever historically black college to introduce ice hockey.

Earlier this year, Tennessee State collaborated with the National Hockey League (NHL), the National Hockey League Player’s Association, and one of the most well-known hockey teams in the United States: the Nashville Predators. Before this partnership occurred, the NHL, along with the players’ union, sponsored feasibility studies for U.S. colleges and universities interested in the addition of Division Ⅰ men’s and women’s programs since 2017. This idea for ice hockey came to fruition when Sean Henry, the president of the Nashville Predators, said there were discussions of helping raise $1 million in scholarship funds in a month. This turned into the idea of bringing up the subject of ice hockey in January 2020.

“The announcement gives him goosebumps thinking of how this could change hockey,” Henry states. Not only will this change the landscape of ice hockey, but also of HBCUs all around the U.S. For decades, HBCUs have mainly been recognized by their popular sports such as basketball and football. However, with the addition of ice hockey, it adds to the preexisting sports. The athletic director of TSU, Mikki Allen, expressed that the program will help diversify hockey and embrace inclusivity. [Read More]

The Unique American (Pine) Marten Calls Wisconsin Home

by Kimberly Rodriguez, age 11

The Pine Marten can be found in multiple places including Wisconsin. They are creatures with beautiful fur and are talented climbers and fishers.

Wisconsin Pine Martens typically consume mice and animals like squirrels, rabbits, and small birds. They are also considered omnivores that eat wild fruits, berries, and nuts. Although Pine Martens can climb very well, the majority of their hunting stays on the ground.

Piners can be found in Canada, Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, and the Rocky Mountains. With their thick coat to keep them warm, they can easily hunt in the winter and prefer to live in cold and snowy places. Their warm fur also makes them resemble a bushed-tailed cat. [Read More]

The Asiatic Lion Is One of Earth’s Rarest Big Cat Species

by Mahalia Pearson, age 13

When people envision lions, they typically think they are from Africa, but lions can be found in different geographical areas around the world such as India, one example being the Asiatic lion. The Asiatic lion is one of the rarest types of cat species. Not only is it called an Asiatic lion, but it is also referred to as the Persian lion.

The coat of this carnivore consists of many colors such as black, dark brown, sandy, and gray. The Asiatic lion is smaller than the well-known African lion and has a short, sparse, and dark mane that makes its ears more visible compared to the African lion. Another distinction is that the Asiatic lion has a longitudinal fold of skin that goes along its belly.

The Asiatic lion lived in habitats ranging from Turkey and across Asia to Eastern India. Unfortunately, this creature has been hunted down to the point of near extinction. Currently, these lions are prone to diseases, disaster, and potential poaching. They also have to deal with the consequences of a growing population of humans and cattle. With larger human populations that demand more land for agriculture and settlement, the habitats of these lions are slowly disappearing. [Read More]

Monona Mural Is Beloved Local Example of Public Art

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

Wisconsin boasts a plethora of stunning and remarkable murals throughout the state, each distinguished by the unique messages they convey. One compelling illustration is the "Water, Land, and Sky" mural located in Monona.

Positioned conveniently on West Broadway, opposite South Towne Mall, this mural is accessible to the public at all times, allowing visitors to capture photographs with it. Crafted in the summer of 2017, it is the result of a collaboration between the city of Monona and Dane Arts Mural Art.

The "Water, Land, and Sky" mural serves as a tribute to the beauty of Monona and its vibrant community. Local artist Rhea Swing breathed life into this masterpiece, with the active involvement of Monona residents, including those from Winnequah Elementary, the Monona Senior Center, and members of the Ho-Chunk Nation. [Read More]

Arizona’s Beautiful and Mysterious Apache Trail

by Mahalia Pearson, age 12

The Apache Trail was completed through the Superstition Mountains in 1911, but construction began in 1904. These two landmarks are located in Arizona. The roughly 40-mile trail was used for stagecoaches by the Mexican, Spanish, and American settlers. The settlers learned the trail from the Native Americans who resided in the area. The trail was named after the Apache Native Americans and other Native American tribes.

The Apache Trail, also known as Route 88, is hard to drive on due to the poor conditions of the road. While driving on the road, people experience deserts, sharp turns, and steep hills. Visitors should be cautious of possible landslides or cliffs that may make it easy for one to fall off.

The trail is currently closed and has been closed for three years due to fires, floods, and landslides. The Woodbury fire burned down 120,000 acres of land and left a burn scar. That part of the trail has been closed because of the risk of having another landslide. Since the trail is closed, drivers must take another route that takes two times longer to reach their destination. [Read More]

What was Life Like in the Ice Age?

by Kaleab Afeworki, age 11

The Ice Age was a cold time period where wooly mammoths roamed free, sea levels were at bay, and isthmuses served as a natural means of transportation.

Historically, there have been five major Ice Ages, with the first dating 2.3 billion years ago. During the first Ice Age, a huge layer of ice that was more than 650 feet thick encoated one-third of the Earth. Today, leftover ice still covers Greenland and Antarctica.

The book World History Encyclopedia states, “Since the Quaternary Ice Age, there have been 17 glacial (cold) and 17 interglacial (warm) periods.” Ice Ages start from the Earth changing its direction in its path as it orbits the Sun. The first Ice Age was called the Huronian Glaciation. Right now, we are living in the Holocene, a geological time period that began 11,700 years ago after the most recent major Ice Age. [Read More]

The History and Evolution of Majorette Dancing

by Atisse Robbins, age 12

Majorettes encompass more than just dancing; they hold a significant cultural role, particularly in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), as a tribute to Black culture.

The first majorette performance, known to history, occurred in 1968 at the Orange Blossom Classic in Florida. Alcorn State University introduced the first majorette group, the Golden Girls, composed of eight dancers. Originally, majorettes were carnival performers who skillfully manipulated their batons. Originating as Dansmarietjes, this style made its way to the American South and evolved into the HBCU tradition we recognize today.

Majorettes incorporate various dance styles like jazz, hip-hop, ballet, burlesque, kick lines, and bucking to both entertain audiences and pay homage to those who paved the way. At Alcorn State University, Junior Jakayla Loften is a member of the Golden Girls, and she credits her participation to personal growth, both as a dancer and as a woman. [Read More]

Meet the Rare Asiatic Cheetah

by Allison Wallace, age 11

There are currently only 30 Asiatic cheetahs left, a majestic cat species. These cheetahs are found in Iran, but their habitat used to span from the Middle East of Asia to Russia. Unfortunately, their population has significantly declined.

Compared to their African counterparts, Asiatic cheetahs are smaller, and have thicker coats, more powerful necks, and longer legs. These longer legs have led to theories that they might be faster, although no studies have confirmed this. They also have lighter fur, nearly white on their sides, a deviation from African cheetahs, and small black spots on their face that are irregularly scattered on their bodies.

The Asiatic cheetah primarily preys on herbivores such as rabbits, hares, wild sheep, goats, and gazelle. [Read More]

Unlocking Opportunities with a Madison Library Card

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

The city of Madison is home to nine public libraries, as well as a mobile library, the Dream Bus. While the Madison Public Library system still lends out books, movies, CDs, and even video games, it has grown to offer a variety of additional opportunities and resources to Madisonians. The key to accessing these opportunities within Madison libraries and the South Central Library System: is a library card.

There are multiple ways to sign up for a library card. For example, sign-up can be done online or at any Madison Public Library location. You will need an ID and proof of your current address. The first card is free and then you can request free replacement cards.

The Madison Public Library website has a list of 30 things a cardholder can do with their card, such as checking out movies, books, computers, DVDs, ebooks, current newspapers, magazines, and many more interesting things. Students and other individuals can reserve a study room to work on homework or school projects. The rooms were made for people to use as a tool to meet with friends or group work members and study. [Read More]

The Mexican-American War: Controversy and Consequences

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

The Mexican-American War was controversial, but others said it was meant to occur. President James K. Polk, known for expanding territorial land of the United States, believed Americans should have power over the entire North American continent.

The war started in 1846 when Polk, who was president at that time, wanted to buy land that belonged to Mexico. Polk sent John Slidell, an American diplomat, to offer $30 million for the land. The only problem was that the Mexican government was not interested and turned down the deal. Polk became furious and sent American troops to a disputed area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River in January 1846. Before the war began, there already was conflict on whether Texas ended at the Nueces or the Rio Grande. After sending troops, Polk tried to incite Mexico into war, and soon enough the Mexican government responded by crossing the Rio Grande and firing on American troops in April 1846. In response, Polk sent an order for war to Congress on May 11, 1846. Polk declared, “Mexico has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil."

It was a very questionable move that was heavily criticized by Northerners. Many Northerners believed that Polk only wanted the land to extend slaveholding. Others thought it was unfair to take Mexico’s land by force. Second Lt. Ulysses S. Grant was one of the people who gave his own opinion on the war by saying it was “one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation.” The war was compared to European monarchy wars. [Read More]

Exploring the Award-Winning Restoration of the 1868 Brisbane House in Arena, Wisconsin

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

The historic Brisbane House in Arena, Wisconsin, is renowned for its builder's past. William Henry Brisbane, known as an "abolitionist," faced significant scrutiny when he embraced this cause and subsequently relocated from his Southern home state.

Born on October 12, 1806, Brisbane began his journey as a cadet at the Norwich Military Academy in Norwich, Vermont. He later inherited 33 enslaved individuals from his family. While residing in a South Carolina house with his slaves, Brisbane underwent a transformation in his beliefs, recognizing the inherent wrongfulness of slavery. He made the courageous decision to set his slaves free, a move that garnered heavy criticism and disdain from his community. Nonetheless, this opposition did not deter him from persisting in his human rights campaign. To escape judgment and pursue his cause, Brisbane left South Carolina and settled in what is now Arena, Wisconsin, embarking on a new chapter in his life.

Brisbane harbored grand plans to construct a house where he could reside and eventually provide accommodation for others after his passing. The house was built in the "I-style," a design Southerners transported with them when they migrated North. Characterized by its towering structure and an interior adorned with numerous large windows that facilitated excellent ventilation in the summer, the house also featured tall doors. Remarkably, the house still stands in good condition. [Read More]

World War Two Battalion Awarded Congressional Gold Medal

by Mahalia Pearson, age 12

During World War II, the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion employed people of African-American, Caribbean, and Mexican descent. The women who worked in the Postal Directory Department were grouped in the Women Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and later were called the Women Army Corps (WAC) on July 1, 1943.

Unfortunately, in 1945, multiple warehouses in England had a large backlog of mail from soldiers that had not been distributed. Before it could be sent out, the mail would take six months to process first, and there were seven million soldiers and government workers waiting for their correspondence. This issue left soldiers upset since they were not receiving their mail. The 855 Black women from the WAC were granted the opportunity to go overseas, due to the support and pressure from different African American organizations. When arrived in Europe they started sending out mail. They worked seven days a week, circling through three eight-hour shifts per day. These women delivered more than 17 million letters in the last several months of the war.

These women were slandered by male soldiers based on their race and gender. Major Charity Adams, the female African-American officer with the highest rank, led her corps through a boycott against the facilities for being segregated. The reason for the discrimination they faced was because they were Black women in a primarily white place. As a solution, they decided to create their facilities such as hair salons, food halls, and refreshment bars. [Read More]

The Vampire Spiders Are the Secret Blood-Lovers of the Insect World

by Riya Adhikari, age 12

Everyone talks about blood-loving mosquitos, but does anyone talk about the blood-loving spiders? Evarcha culicivora, also called vampire spiders, are a type of spider that feeds on blood. They are called mosquito terminators.

Evarcha likes both animal and human blood. Vampire spiders cannot bite through skin or animal hide because their mouthparts are not built for this ability.

Vampire spiders depend on mosquitoes to get the blood they desire. Their favorite types of mosquitoes are Anopheles, which are the main malaria spreaders in Africa. This mosquito species sits with its bottom sticking up in the air, while the majority of mosquitos sit with their bottoms on the floor. Their posture is an advantage for baby spiders. They can crawl under the mosquito’s abdomen, jump up, then grab onto the mosquito. While it flies away, the little spiders hang on to the mosquito and inject it with their venom. They then have a big feast. Vampire spiders live by Lake Victoria in the nations of Kenya and Uganda in the eastern part of Africa. [Read More]

Investigating the Mysterious Snow on Saturn's Moon

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

The snow on Saturn’s moon, Enceladus, can bury almost any skyscraper on Earth. Scientists would like to find out why.

The snow’s depth on Enceladus shows that its water vapor could have been more active in the past. Geysers on the moon allow for water from a salty ocean under an icy shell to rise to the surface of Enceladus. Some of this water contributes to forming one of Saturn’s rings. According to the researchers, the rest of this water seems to land back on the ground in the form of snow. Scientists believe that if they could fully understand the snow's properties, it could help uncover Enceladus’ history.

For scientists to fully understand the properties of the snow on Enceladus, they looked into Iceland. In Iceland, there are marks in the ground made from loose rocks, ice, or snow called pit chains. Scientists discovered they are very similar to features on Enceladus. [Read More]

Dominik Szoboszlai, A $76 Million Sensation at Liverpool

by Oliver Zink, age 13

Hungarian soccer player Dominik Szoboszlai was bought by Liverpool in 2023 for $76 million. Szoboszlai gave his opinion on the team by saying it has "... outstanding players, good coach, everything is good. For me, it is perfect." Szoboszlai will leave the Leipzig team, where he did well between 2021 and 2023. His jersey number will change to number eight at Liverpool.

Szoboszlai was born on October 25, 2000, in Székesfehérvár, Hungary. His dad was a former soccer player in Australia, so during his childhood, he made him practice dribbling and sliding the ball between and over plastic bottles. Sometimes, he practiced with golf balls.

Szobaszlai's first team was Videoton from 2006 to 2007. He later played on Főnix Gold from 2007 to 2015. After his time there, he moved to MTK Budapest. In his last year as a youth player, Szoboszlai played for Liefering from 2016 to 2017. [Read More]

Wisconsin Trade Exams Now Available in Spanish, Paving the Way for Inclusivity and Opportunity

by Sandy Flores Ruiz, age 17

Wisconsin Trade Credentialing Examinations are now offered in Spanish, as of July 11, 2023. This will allow native Spanish speakers to take all trade exams in Spanish, which will eliminate a language barrier to obtaining a credential, and help them achieve a higher earning job.

The Wisconsin Department of Safety and Professional Services is investing in the expansion of the state’s workforce by creating changes like this, offering people the opportunity to be certified in a trade. The exam will help native Spanish speakers to get one of the state’s 240 professional credentials. Those include plumbing, contracting, electrical work and so much more. Many are excited about this new major advancement as it will allow more Hispanic people to be able to work in different fields.

However, people worry that this new advance will only benefit a few community members because of the following steps after the exam. In the state of Wisconsin, one in five Latinos do not speak English at all or do not speak it well. After entering those higher-level positions, many will struggle to succeed if the only language companies offer is English. Some question whether Wisconsin is creating false hope for people entering a workforce in which their native language is not spoken. [Read More]

The Metamorphosis of Amphibians from Water to Land

by Marie Pietz, age 11

Amphibians are born in freshwater and move out to dry land when they reach a certain age.

Many types of amphibians can be found in bodies of water.

While they are born into water, they have to go through stages of growth before moving onto land. When amphibians mate, most lay eggs, while others give birth. Those who lay eggs usually lay them in soft clumps with a jelly-like texture. [Read More]

Understanding the Health Impacts and Controversies Surrounding Daylight Saving Time

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

Although daylight saving time is very popular with many people, it may have negative health effects for humans, according to some scientists.

Daylight saving time is when clocks move an hour forward in the spring and return to standard time in the fall. This makes people lose an hour of sleep, causing scientists to question if this is healthy. Kenneth Wright, an expert on sleep and body clocks, says that daylight saving time is the wrong name for this procedure. He says that humans are only changing the way they live concerning the sun, making their bodies out of sync. The action of changing the clocks creates a problem with the human body’s circadian rhythm as it resets.

Wright and other scientists advocate for permanent standard time instead of switching twice a year. The U.S. Senate voted for daylight saving to become permanent in March 2022, but without a vote from the House, it has not become law. Something similar happened in Congress in the 1970s, however, it was not passed as people feared the shift could cause fear or depression among adolescents and others. [Read More]

The Fascinating Reproduction Process of Reptiles

by Mahalia Pearson, age 12

Reptiles are known to spend their whole lifetime split between land and water. When they mate, they then have to come out of the water to lay their eggs.

Not only are reptile eggs durable, but they also boast a shell underneath that shields the fluid of the yolk and protects the embryo. The small fluid inside allows the baby creatures to remain safe. This yolk provides the baby food while they grow in the egg.

The young reptiles come out of the egg like a small version of their parents. There are many types of reptiles, including snakes, alligators, lizards, and a Galapagos giant tortoise, of whom these reproduce with eggs. However, other reptiles including some snakes and lizards, are viviparous which means that they do not lay any eggs. Instead, they give birth to a fully developed reptile. [Read More]

The Wrath of Mediterranean Volcanoes - From Vesuvius to Etna

by Emily Rodriguez, age 14

In the Mediterranean Sea, there are many destructive volcanoes. Two of the most well-known are Mt. Vesuvius and Mt. Etna.

Mt. Vesuvius is known for its eruptions located in the Bay of Naples, Italy. This volcano destroyed a whole town, burying it in ashes. It has erupted numerous times. In 1944, during World War II, a volcanic eruption damaged the aircraft engines due to volcanic ash and rock fragments left in the air. The first recording of Mt. Vesuvius’ eruption was by Pliny the Younger in AD 79. This eruption destroyed the town of Pompeii. Many people fled for safety, some ran towards the sea for their boats. Many people perished in the disaster of the eruption.

Mt. Etna, Europe’s current largest active volcano, is located in eastern Sicily. It has periodically erupted for the past three thousand years. The last major eruption was in 1992. It produced a column of ash, lava, and gas causing a lot of destructive damage to nature and pollution to the air. Even though this volcano has caused immense damage in the past, people continue to settle nearby for its fertile soil, and because the volcano is dormant. Similar to Mt. Vesuvius, it is a very destructive volcano. [Read More]

How Seismic Waves are Studied to Peer Inside the Earth

by Alejandro Berrueta, age 11

Scientists continue to get more advanced as their knowledge of seismology increases. These advancements are helping citizens all around the world to take shelter before any disaster strikes, regardless if it is natural or manmade.

As we know, movements on Earth are caused by platonic plates moving under the ground. These extremely fast movements can cause earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, which can be deadly. Humans can also cause movements on the planet by the use of explosions. For example, testing atomic bombs, and other heavy explosions as well as mining can also cause earthquakes.

With more advanced technology becoming available, scientists will continue to study movements in or on Earth. With the correct measurements, big impacts can be avoided and save lives. [Read More]

Muons Reveal Hidden Void in Egypt's Great Pyramid

by Alejandro Berrueta, age 11

A nebulous void has been discovered in Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza with the help of muons. This void was first discovered in 2016 by scientists on the pyramid’s north face. The muons’ measurement helped identify the size and shape of this void.

Muons are subatomic particles created by high-energy particles from space. These particles are also known as cosmic rays; they fall into Earth's atmosphere and create high-energy muons. Some are absorbed when they fall onto structures.

Scientists from the ScanPyramids team reported to Nature Communications that the void was nine meters long, two meters wide, and two meters tall. In addition to ultrasonic testing and ground penetrating radar, the scientists were able to get detailed pictures regarding the void. They discovered a vaulted ceiling that had not been seen in over 4,500 years. [Read More]

The History of Pringles Chips

by Moore Vang, age 14

In the 1950s, the company Procter & Gamble wanted to design a chip that

did not break, had flavor and had a new shape. After nearly a century, Pringles has generated popularity around the world and is one of the best chips out there.

A chemist named Fredric Baur created the design of the Pringle, which was [Read More]

The Charm of Frogs

by Soren Dahl, age 11

If you hold a dislike for frogs, your perspective might change once you delve into the fascinating world of these diminutive amphibians.

Across the globe, there exist thousands of frog species, with some falling under the category of toads. Toads typically exhibit dry, bumpy skin and are not commonly found in aquatic environments. Among the frog species, certain ones can attain remarkable sizes, such as the Goliath frog or the Cane toad, which can grow to over a pound in weight.

Frogs boast a varied diet, encompassing an eccentric and unusual assortment of foods. Flies, ants, and other small insects form the staple diet of most frogs. Larger frogs, on the other hand, gravitate toward larger insects and small creatures. Among the examples are tarantulas and mice. [Read More]

Exploring the World of Bats

by Kimberly Rodriguez, age 11

There are approximately 1,200 different types of bats on Earth! Bats are best known for their echolocation, which is the ability to sense objects using sound.

In the United States, there are 40 species of bats. They are usually found in the southwestern parts where it is warm, as they don't prefer cold environments. Bats sleep in caves in large groups called colonies. This provides them with extra protection and helps keep them warm.

Most bats eat scorpions, spiders, and other insects they can find on the ground. Baby bats drink milk from their mothers. There are also fruit-eating bats, while other species are meat-eaters that feed on small rodents and tree frogs. Additionally, there's the common fear of vampire bats, which enjoy feeding on the blood of larger animals such as cattle or, in rare cases, humans! [Read More]

What is an Addax?

by Malak Al Quraishi, age 12

An addax looks like a cross between a deer and a goat, but it is a creature that is specifically known for its horns. These horns look like twisted blades that can twist up to three times and reach lengths of three feet.

Addax live in the Sahara Desert. Their diet changes depending on their habitat but they normally eat desert grass and shrub foliage.

Their skulls are super thick to protect themselves. This is especially important in fights as they ram into one another and headbutt eachother to determine the strongest addax. Along with a strong skull, the addax has interesting facial patterns. Some experts think that the pattern on the addax’s face is a form of camouflage so that it is able to confuse predators. [Read More]

The Closest Black Hole to Earth is just 1,500 light-years Away

by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 13

There are plenty of black holes in outer space. Astronomers have found what they believe is currently the closest black hole to Earth.

Gaia BH1 is about 1,560 light-years from Earth and has a mass 10 times bigger than that of the sun. It is the first black hole discovered to be close to Earth, the second closest is around twice the distance at 3,200 light-years away.

Like many black holes, Gaia BH1 eats gas from massive stars that are clustered together. As the black hole eats the gas, it forms a disk around the black hole that can only be seen through x-rays. A star that is orbiting a black hole at a safe distance will not get eaten, but since the gravitational pull of a black hole is massive it can get pushed and pulled around space. [Read More]

The Grizzly Is North America’s Giant

by Moore Vang, age 14

The grizzly bear or the brown bear is one of the most dangerous bears in North America. It is gigantic, extremely powerful, and wildly unpredictable. Its fur is light brown with white-tipped hairs and it has a distinct shoulder hump. Interestingly, it can run as fast as a horse but only for short durations.

The scientific name of the grizzly bear is Ursus arctos and it can reach up to a weight of 1,000 pounds. Its subspecies, the Alaskan brown bear, also known as the Kodiak bear, can weigh twice as much as a grizzly bear.

The grizzly bear has long front claws that grow up to four inches. These bear are omnivorous, eating small mammals, fish, and insects—as well as different types of vegetation, including roots, leaves, fungi, and fruit. Shockingly, they can also catch massive prey, such as deer or moose. [Read More]

Fuerte disminución en la población de manatíes de Florida alarma a los expertos — por Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, 14 años de edad; traducido por Yoanna Hoskins 17 años de edad

Un manatí es un animal acuático que es grande y de movimiento lento que vive en Florida. Desafortunadamente, estas criaturas se están extinguiendo. [Read More]

The Peshtigo Firestorm and Tornado — by Jeremiah Warren, age 11

The Peshtigo fire was a huge fire that destroyed the town of Peshtigo, Wisconsin on October 8, 1871. Although the fire is considered one of the deadliest fires in America history, somehow it is largely forgotten. [Read More]

How One of China's Most Beautiful Attractions Saved Lives — by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

Where would be a good place to hide if something bad ever happened? The Guilin Hills is a place in China where many people hid during World War II and the following civil war when clashing armies turned the region into a battlefield. The hills also have a lot of caves, one of many ways they’ve played a role in Chinese history. [Read More]

The Mammal that Helped Take Over the Globe — by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 12

Researchers have discovered a prehistoric mammal with a two to five years life cycle that they call the Manbearpig. The mammal’s short lifespan is likely due to their months-long pregnancy, a trait scientists believe helped mammals dominate the world after the extinction of the dinosaurs. [Read More]

Why it's Important to Brush Your Teeth — by Jonah Smith, age 14

Your dentist will always tell you to brush your teeth. But why? Not brushing your teeth can cause tooth decay, an infectious disease caused by sugar-loving microbes that live in the mouth. A new study, however, might want to make you brush your teeth even more. Researchers have found that these tiny mouth microbes can combine cause more damage than expected. [Read More]