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Marie Curie Was a Trailblazer in Science and Radioactivity

by Siwoo Park, age 12

Marie Curie, one of the world’s beloved scientists, was a pioneer in the study of radioactivity and her discoveries revolutionized cancer treatment. Through her discovery of radium, she became the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in two different fields, and eight years later won a subsequent prize.

Marie was born Marya Sklodowska on November 7, 1867, in Warsaw, Poland. She earned good grades and was even awarded a gold medal in her high school. Despite being a great student and her family valued education, she could not attend university because Russia had invaded Poland and women were not able to go to college after the invasion. Marya made money by giving private tutoring lessons and became involved with a group of young people who taught themselves their topics, called the “Floating University.” She became a governess to a wealthy family, but she craved knowledge and became more determined than ever to attend university.

In 1891, Marya went to live with her sister Bronya in France. She changed her name to a French variation of her name, “Marie,” and studied mathematics, chemistry, and physics at the Sorbonne, where she became the first woman to teach. In 1894, she needed a laboratory to work on her chosen study of measuring the magnetic properties of steel alloys. Her colleagues suggested she meet Pierre Curie at the Schools of Physics and Chemistry. Marie was astonished by Pierre from their very first meeting. [Read More]

The Sad Story of Japanese-American Internment During World War II

by Kelly Vazquez, age 18

Anti-Asian sentiments have been around for some time now, but with COVID-19, Asian hate has risen all across the globe. However, this is not the first time Asian groups have faced discrimination. A prime example is the aftermath of the Pearl Harbor attacks in 1941, when the Japanese military attacked the US Naval base by surprise, killing 2,403 service members, seriously injuring 1,178 others, and destroying about 170 planes and multiple ships.

The response from President Franklin Roosevelt was Executive Order 9066, which established Japanese internment camps from 1942 to 1954 during World War II. This policy —now known as one of the worst American civil rights violations — stripped the civil rights of people of Japanese descent, including U.S. citizens, and forced them into isolated camps.

What exactly was Executive Order 9066? After the tragic Pearl Harbor attacks, Roosevelt signed the order on February 19, 1942, to prevent espionage on American shores, creating military zones in states with large Japanese demographics — such as California, Washington, and Oregon. Americans of Japanese descent and Japanese immigrants were forced out of their homes and into the camps. The order impacted an estimated 120,000 people, many of whom were Americans. [Read More]

The Last Voyage of the SS Phoenix

by Kelly Vazquez, age 17

On November 11th, 1847, the steamboat S.S. Phoenix, was sailing across Lake Michigan. It carried an estimated 293 passengers, many of whom were immigrants from the Netherlands. However, many of these passengers would never go on to see their destination.

Around 4:00 am on November 21st, smoke began to escape the ship's engine room as the boilers overheated and set overhead wooden beams on fire. When the crewmen discovered the fire, the Phoenix was within seven miles of the town of Sheboygan.

Although at first, the crew managed to contain the flames, the fire raged out of control shortly after. The ship's passengers were alerted and First Mate Watts organized the crew and passengers into a bucket brigade (passing buckets of water down a line of people) in an attempt to fight the fire. The fire continued to grow. Watts ordered the ship to turn towards the shore, but the fire overwhelmed the engine room and the ship drifted until it stopped about five miles from shore and nine miles from Sheboygan. [Read More]

Rosa Parks, Civil Rights Icon

by Sol-Saray, age 11

Many people may have heard of the brave woman who stood up for herself and refused to give up her seat to a white man. That woman was known as Rosa Parks.

Rosa Louise McCauley was born in Tuskegee, Alabama on February 4, 1913. She was daughter of James McCauley, who worked as a carpenter, and Leona McCauley, who worked as a teacher. Rosa's grandparents were enslaved. Rosa grew up in times where racism and segregation was very harsh; due to Jim Crow laws in the South, Black Americans had to sit separately on the bus from white Americans.

On December 1, 1955, she boarded the bus after a long day of work. She chose to sit in the front of the bus, spots typically designated for white people. When demanded to give her seat to a white passenger, she refused and was arrested and fined shortly after. As a result of her arrest, people started boycotting the Montgomery buses in protest by walking instead of using bus transportation. The boycott lasted over a year and resulted in the U.S Supreme Court ruling in favor of ending racial segregation on buses. [Read More]

East L.A. Student Walkouts Propelled the Chicano Movement

by Valeria Moreno Lopez, age 16

The 1960s was a time of change for many underrepresented communities in the United States. Between the civil rights movement and racial conflicts occurring, many people took the opportunity to strongly voice their basic needs. An example is the East L.A. walkouts of 1968, a series of protests led by Chicano students that advocated for the improvement of their education.

Obvious flaws in the Los Angeles school systems were always apparent to Chicano students. The unfurnished buildings could not support the growing population, hence leading to overcrowding; and much of the staff were inadequately trained for teaching. The lack of education quality denied many academic and career opportunities for Latinos that were readily available to white students. Nearly 130,000 Latinos made up 75 percent of East L.A.'s student body, but due to the lack of support, the number of school drop-outs mounted to 50 percent or above. Although Chicano students contacted their school administrations to fix the flaws, nothing changed.

Students, however, were not alone in the fight against the discriminatory issues they faced. In particular, Sal Castro, a Mexican-American social studies teacher at Lincoln High School in Los Angeles, encouraged Chicano students to dwell more on their culture and take pride in their identity. In 1967, Castro, and community members, began organizing protests and helping students walk out of their classes to march in the streets. Many Chicanos from East L.A. schools and concerned parents joined. Together they created a list of 39 demands, such as employing more Latino staff, allowing bilingualism to be used in classrooms, and an increase of Mexican and Mexican-American history lessons. [Read More]

Women Pioneers in the STEM Fields

by Devika Pal, age 17

As early as the mid-19th century, women made vast contributions to astronomy. They had to fight for representation and recognition in this field. Pioneers such as Maria Mitchell and a group of women known as the Harvard Computers paved the way for the women who followed. However, even now, many women struggle to receive credit for their work.

Maria Mitchell is recognized as the first professional woman astronomer in the United States. She discovered a comet in 1847 using a small telescope, which was later named after her, Miss Mitchell’s Comet. The discovery was initially credited to Italian astronomer Francesco de Vico even though he discovered it after she did; it was not until later that it was credited to Mitchell. The first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Joseph Henry, even published the comet’s discovery in 1848 without mention of Mitchell’s name. His actions reflect the refusal to credit women astronomers for their achievements, a common tendency at that time. Despite being initially overlooked, she was admitted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1848, becoming the first woman to be recognized by the Academy.

During the early 20th century, Harvard Observatory Director Edward Charles Pickering put together a team of women astronomers who came to be known as the “Harvard Computers.” These women carried out astronomical calculations and invented the Harvard spectral classification, which they used to classify hundreds of stars. Over a century later, this system is still being used by modern astronomers. However, the women worked in substandard conditions, only earning 25 to 50 cents an hour, much less than the men made, while performing a similar wide range of duties. Even Annie Jump Cannon—who was central to development of the Havard classification system—was not credited by name in the title. [Read More]

The Ancient Library of Pergamum

by Hiba Al-Quraishi, age 14

The ancient library of Pergamum, located in what is now Turkey, was built in the third century B.C. by members of the Attalid dynasty. The library, constructed by a small kingdom that lasted only 150 years, is now one of the most famous libraries in antiquity.

Following the destruction of Alexander the Great’s empire, Lysimachus, a general in Alexander the Great’s army, founded the Monarchy of Pergamum or Attalid kingdom during the Hellenistic period. This kingdom was situated in what is now Turkey, in the western portion of Asia Minor.

Around 130 BC, the Roman Republic acquired the Kingdom of Pergamum. Even though this kingdom only existed for roughly 150 years, they managed to construct one of the greatest libraries ever seen in antiquity and for centuries. The large library of Pergamum remained a significant hub of study. [Read More]

How an Ancient Civilization Thrived and then Collapsed

by Emily Rodriguez, age 13

A mysterious ancient civilization on the island of Malta collapsed within two generations, despite surviving for more than a millennium.

The ancient civilization was known as the Temple Culture, it arose around 6,000 years ago on Malta and other islands in the Mediterranean sea. Groups of scientists analyzed pollen and DNA from skulls and bones that were buried deep in the Earth to find an explanation for the quick collapse. According to a tree ring analysis, the whole region was exposed to horrible climates. This analysis and other research makes up an ongoing investigation into why the civilization collapsed.

Upwards of several thousand people lived on Malta. These people built a strong and successful civilization through collaboration. The people built sacred sites, one of them being Ggantija Temple complex. Their buildings are known as some of the first free-standing buildings. The temples held the people together. Historians assumed the temples honored a mother goddess. However, recents findings led historians to believe the people focused on their worship, feasting, and rituals insteads of on a deity (god or goddess, in ancient Greek). Despite their affective lifestyle, after around 1,500 years, the civilization and its people were gone. [Read More]

Cathedral on a Hill: Ancient Structure in Turkey Might be the Oldest on Planet Earth

by Jules Da Costa, age 13

Have you ever wondered what the world’s oldest structure is? Well, archaeologists have found an answer: Gobekli Tepe.

The Gobekli Tepe, informally known as “Cathedral on a Hill,” is located east of the Mediterranean Sea in the country of Turkey. It was discovered atop a limestone plateau close to Urfa. It currently stands as humanity's oldest known structure, built over 11,000 years ago.

In 1996, German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt led an expedition on the mountaintop. After over a decade of excavations, Schmidt concluded that the monument gives further insight on when early humans switched from a nomadic lifestyle to an agricultural lifestyle. He and his team found stone tools and other promising evidence that hunter-gatherers based at the Gobekli Tepe site carved tools and built structures. [read more]

How a Library Made Baghdad the World's Most Important Center of Learning

by Mariama Bah, age 15

When hearing about grand libraries, one might think of the Library of Alexandria or the Library of Congress. However a different library was established in the 9th century as one of the world’s greatest centers of science and learning.

The House of Wisdom was founded in the city of Baghdad, Iraq during the Islamic Golden Age, which lasted from the 8th to the 14th century. The Islamic Golden Age was an important period in Islamic history characterized by a series of rapid scientific, cultural, and economic advancements.

Although the House of Wisdom was visited by scholars from all around the Middle East, it was owned by the Abbasid Dynasty, which ruled over the Islamic Empire. Details on the library’s founding are debated. Many believe it was started by Abu Ja’far al-Mansur, who collected books on the sciences. What started as one hall became an educational capital. Students regardless of gender, faith, ethnicity, or language were welcomed into the House of Wisdom. [Read More]

Bussa’s Rebellion in 1816 Helped Bring About the Abolition of Slavery

by Amelia Pearson, age 13

Bussa was an African-born slave who worked at Bayley Plantation in St. Philip on the island of Barbados, which at the time was an English colony. The British Parliament passed a law to end slavery in 1807 but slaves later realized they might never gain freedom.

Bussa was a head officer among the slaves and managed boundaries and fences. He also had to deal with day-to-day business between the estates. Due to this factor, he could move throughout the estate and gain a good understanding of the area. He had the respect of many slaves, plantation owners, and workers.

Bussa planned one of the first major uprisings with people from other estates. The enslaved people attempted to change Barbado's society. They believed Barbados was theirs and wanted to be free from the plantation owners. Bussa led about 400 women and men during the uprising. They fought together against armed and trained troops of the colonial militia. [Read More]

When Authority Turns to Oppression: A Historical Pattern of Persecution

by: Samuel Garduño Martínez, age 16

Nations and empires around the globe have had their times of prosperity as well as times of hardship and failure. However, when minority groups become a threat to a totalitarian government or a governing body, people in power begin to reveal their malicious intentions. This is when persecution arises and people are targeted, even those just living on their land peacefully.

One example from history is the Protestant movement that arose across Europe in the 1400s. The Catholic Church, which still had an authoritarian grip on Europe, began the persecution of the growing Protestant populations. Soon, Protestant denominations, such as Lutheranism and Calvinism, were the target of persecution as their beliefs went against the structure of the Church.

During this time, the sale of indulgences came under fire as the Church taught that salvation and forgiveness of sins could be bought with money. Additionally, the Catholic Church taught that a priest would have to intervene to have a relationship with God. Martin Luther, the founder of Lutheranism, countered these beliefs in his ninety-five theses. He argued that salvation only came through a personal relationship with God as well as an act of repentance. In response to this and other condemnations, the Catholic Church excommunicated Luther. This would only be the beginning of many more excommunications of people who spoke out against the Catholic Church. [Read More]

The Mexican-American War: Controversy and Consequences

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

The Mexican-American War was controversial, but others said it was meant to occur. President James K. Polk, known for expanding territorial land of the United States, believed Americans should have power over the entire North American continent.

The war started in 1846 when Polk, who was president at that time, wanted to buy land that belonged to Mexico. Polk sent John Slidell, an American diplomat, to offer $30 million for the land. The only problem was that the Mexican government was not interested and turned down the deal. Polk became furious and sent American troops to a disputed area between the Rio Grande and the Nueces River in January 1846. Before the war began, there already was conflict on whether Texas ended at the Nueces or the Rio Grande. After sending troops, Polk tried to incite Mexico into war, and soon enough the Mexican government responded by crossing the Rio Grande and firing on American troops in April 1846. In response, Polk sent an order for war to Congress on May 11, 1846. Polk declared, “Mexico has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil."

It was a very questionable move that was heavily criticized by Northerners. Many Northerners believed that Polk only wanted the land to extend slaveholding. Others thought it was unfair to take Mexico’s land by force. Second Lt. Ulysses S. Grant was one of the people who gave his own opinion on the war by saying it was “one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation.” The war was compared to European monarchy wars. [Read More]

World War Two Battalion Awarded Congressional Gold Medal

by Mahalia Pearson, age 12

During World War II, the 6888th Central Postal Directory Battalion employed people of African-American, Caribbean, and Mexican descent. The women who worked in the Postal Directory Department were grouped in the Women Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) and later were called the Women Army Corps (WAC) on July 1, 1943.

Unfortunately, in 1945, multiple warehouses in England had a large backlog of mail from soldiers that had not been distributed. Before it could be sent out, the mail would take six months to process first, and there were seven million soldiers and government workers waiting for their correspondence. This issue left soldiers upset since they were not receiving their mail. The 855 Black women from the WAC were granted the opportunity to go overseas, due to the support and pressure from different African American organizations. When arrived in Europe they started sending out mail. They worked seven days a week, circling through three eight-hour shifts per day. These women delivered more than 17 million letters in the last several months of the war.

These women were slandered by male soldiers based on their race and gender. Major Charity Adams, the female African-American officer with the highest rank, led her corps through a boycott against the facilities for being segregated. The reason for the discrimination they faced was because they were Black women in a primarily white place. As a solution, they decided to create their facilities such as hair salons, food halls, and refreshment bars. [Read More]

The Silk Road Paved the Way for Cultural Exchange and Prosperity

by Daileni Cruz, age 10

The Silk Road was an ancient trade route connecting the two great civilizations of Rome and China. They would trade wool, gold, silver, and silk along this road.

In 138 BC, Zhang Qian journeyed from China to Central Asia. He is known as “The Father of the Silk Road.” His sea voyages exposed the Chinese to Greek culture. New breeds of horses, grapes, and alfalfa were brought to China because of his journeys. The trade route that people mainly used followed the Great Wall of China to the northwest and climbed the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan, and went through Afghanistan before finishing in Rome.

Asia began to lose its Roman territory as Arabian power began to increase in the Mediterranean area. Due to their differences, the Silk Road became unsafe. The Silk Road slowly disappeared as people stopped using it for trade. Sea routes were then discovered as a safe and faster means of trade. [Read More]

Nellie Bly Trailblazed a New Kind of Investigative Journalism

by Cataleya Garcia Fox, age 11

Elizabeth Jane Cochran, also known as Nellie Bly, was a journalist and record-setter who traveled around the world.

She was born in Cochran’s Mills, Pennsylvania, on May 5, 1864. Bly grew up with her older brothers and parents, who loved her very much. Unfortunately, her father passed away when she was six. Her family needed money, which led her to work more often. Bly truly wanted to teach but had to drop out of school to provide for her family.

When Bly was 16, she started reading an article in the Pittsburgh newspaper that described women as helpless and pathetic. The article shocked and offended her. She was not afraid to show that she had her rights. Thus, Bly wrote a letter to the editor expressing her thoughts and detailing how the article was offensive to women. The editor was impressed by Bly’s confidence; in fact, he wrote back, offering her a job. [Read More]

From Fear to Fallout, The Manhattan Project and the Dawn of Nuclear Weapons

by Max Moreno, age 11

Amidst WWII, United States Authorities feared that Hitler would get his hands on nuclear weapons before them. As a result, President Roosevelt started the Manhattan Project to make the first atomic bomb.

Scientists figured out that if they split an atom in half, it released a lot of energy. On July 16, 1945, a scientist named Julius Robert Oppenheimer, also known as the father of the Atomic Bomb, and a few other scientists successfully made the first Atomic Bomb and named it Trinity. They set off the bomb in a remote desert in New Mexico. It had a blast force equivalent to 18,000 U.S. tons of TNT. Although Oppenheimer was happy that his creation was successful, he also feared its potential to create mass destruction.

By the time they made the bomb, Germany had already surrendered, and WWII was over in Europe, but Japan refused to surrender. President Truman decided to drop the bomb on Japan after estimating the U.S. would lose around 500,000 to 1 million soldiers if they tried to invade the country. Even though Oppenheimer disagreed he had to prove his loyalty to protect himself and his family. On Aug. 6, 1945, a bomb named Little Boy, which was around ten feet in length and weighed 10,000 pounds, was dropped by a B-29 bomber plane named Enola Gay on Hiroshima, Japan. [Read More]

Helena Rubinstein Built a Multimillion-Dollar Beauty Empire

by Ermiyas Abiy, age 8

Have you ever wondered how the makeup and cosmetic industry started? Are you curious to know who built a multimillion-dollar beauty industry? Helena Rubinstein was one of the first women to achieve this feat.

Helena Rubinstein was born on Christmas Day, December 25, 1870. She founded a global cosmetics empire, which began her journey of becoming one of the wealthiest women in the world. She used her wealth to create a product that would become one of the most successful on the planet. The foundation, a face cream, helped women's health. The brand was named after her and still exists to this day.

Helena always found business opportunities, especially when she visited some relatives in Australia. She discovered that women's skin was damaged and drier in hot weather. She combined her cream with a family formula that improved women's skin, leading her to be even more successful. [Read More]

Genghis Khan and the Rise of the Mongol Empire

by Marco Flores, age 9

The largest land empire was none other than the Mongol Empire. The empire stretched from Hungary to Korea and had more than 100,000,000 people living within the empire. They lived as nomadic tribes in a region that is now known as modern day Mongolia.

During the early 13th century, Temujin, a warlord, united the Mongol tribes. The Mongols warriors were fierce and had great skills for riding horses and archery. Temujin was given the name Genghis Khan for his great leadership.

In 1209, Genghis Khan attacked Xixia in northern China. In 1211, He got involved in the Jin Dynasty And turned on them. In 1223, the Mongol Empire expanded westward, conquering the Turkish Muslim Shaddom of Khwarizm in Persia. The Mongol were able to overcome the Turkic people, which were then recruited to the Mongol armies. Genghis Khan died in 1227 after a campaign in China and was succeeded by his son Ogodei. Under Ogodei, the empire continued to grow and expand. On the east, the Mongols conquered the Jin in 1234. Following this, they went to conquer the Southern Song, Caucasus, and Anatolia. In 1237 the Mongols even invaded Russia. [Read More]

Jackie Robinson, The Legend Who Changed Major League Baseball

by Max Moreno, age 11

Jack Roosevelt Robinson, also known as Jackie Robinson was a legendary baseball player who broke the color barrier in Major League Baseball by becoming the first Black American to be in the MLB. However, Robinson wasn't just any ordinary baseball player.

Robinson was born on Jan. 31, 1919, and grew up in Cairo, Georgia. During high school he played many sports like baseball, basketball, football and track. He was also named the state's MVP in 1938. He attended UCLA, where he was the university's first student to win varsity letters in four sports. In the 1940s Robinson met his future wife, Rachel Isum, when they were attending UCLA and got married in 1946. However he had to drop out of UCLA just shy of graduation because he didn't have enough money. After moving to Honolulu Hawaii, Robinson played football for the semi-professional league but his season was cut short as the United States entered WWII. He was drafted to the war from 1942 to 1944 and served as a second lieutenant but never fought in combat. After he was discharged from the army, Robinson began to play baseball but at that time baseball was segregated and white and Black people played in different leagues.

Robinson started his pro career in the Negro leagues and played for the Kansas City Monarchs. The president of the Brooklyn Dodgers, Branch Rickey, wanted to get Robinson to join the MLB to prove to the world that Black Americans can play baseball with white Americans. But Rickey knew that it would be difficult for Robinson so he personally tested him to see his reaction when being called racial slurs. He also asked Robinson to promise to avoid fighting back when faced with racism. Robinson played his first game for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947. Robinson was faced with racism from the beginning of his career. Some of his new teammates refused to play with a Black American on their team. People in crowds often insulted him and he and his family received death threats. Many opposing teams refused and threatened not to play with Robinson and even his teammates sat out in games. Despite the insults, he continued to play. Though in one infamous game when fans were harassing Robinson, team captain Peewee Reese walked over to him and put his arm around him as a gesture signifying peace, a moment that became legendary in baseball history. [Read More]

Göbekli Tepe Is the World's Oldest Temple

by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 16

The Gobekli Tepe, also known as "Hill with a Navel" or "Potbelly Hill," is found ten miles northeast of Sanliurfa, an ancient city in southeastern Turkey. It was once named "Edessa" and is known as "The City of the Prophets."

Gobekli Tepe was discovered by a German archeologist named Klaus Schmidt, who formerly worked on a different ancient site that predated Gobekli Tepe. This site is the oldest man-made place of worship that has been discovered and dates back to 10,000 BCE.

These temples contained loft pillars with carved reliefs of different animals, such as snakes, foxes, and lions. Bones have been discovered on the site, which might have been used for ritual sacrifices and feasts. Gobekli Tepe was filled with numerous Neolithic flint tools, knives, choppers, and projectile points. [Read More]

Discovering Aztalan, Wisconsin's Hidden Ancient Civilization

by Aria McClinton, age 13

Aztalan was an ancient civilization located in what is now southern Wisconsin. It was discovered in the 1820s by American settlers, who named the hidden civilization but did not explore its origins.

Then came Increase A. Lapham, a natural scientist from Wisconsin. He revisited Aztalan in 1850 after the settlers. Lapham couldn't tell what used to be there. He studied and made detailed drawings of the area. These maps helped future researchers see what Aztalan was like before much of it was turned into farmland.

In 1919, Samuel Barrett, the founder of the Milwaukee Public Museum, did detailed research under the surface of Aztalan. At first, he thought the hills and bumps were effigy mounds from the Native Americans. Later, Barrett discovered that the Crawfish River cut a ravine through some of the land. He was excited because this revealed more tools, bones, and other artifacts. Later in his studies, he could tell that it was a very advanced civilization from things like structures or pottery. [Read More]

History Tells New Story of First Black American to Reach the North Pole

by Aubrey A Bevenue, age 12

Robert Peary is recognized as the first person to set foot on the North Pole. While he did not get a lot of recognition at the time, the African-American explorer, Matthew Henson was also ultimately recognized.

Matthew Henson was a skilled explorer. He was very experienced since he began his life on a merchant ship, starting when he was only 12 years old. He learned cartography and maritime astronomy while being at sea in the Arctic. He also spoke one of the main languages of people who lived near the Arctic, known as the Inuit language. Many people knew Henson as Miy Paliuk, which also translated to “Matthew, the kind one.” He also later had a son with an Inuit woman.

40 dogs pulled the sled that transported the explorers. The dogs ran for five days in freezing temperatures, and the men's faces became raw over time. Henson's accomplishments represented that African American people could also be successful. He wrote an autobiography in 1912, that talks about his success and challenges with his teammate and the journey. [Read More]

Machu Picchu Provides a Glimpse Into Past Inca Life

by Marco Gonzales, age 9

During the 20th century, Machu Picchu was rediscovered. At first, researchers thought it was Vilcabamba, a village where Incas were known to survive when the Spanish took over. However, this theory is now considered wrong; instead, Machu Picchu was likely an important ceremonial and religious site. Though the exact date of Machu's construction is unclear, it likely grew during the rapid expansion period of the Inca Empire at the end of the 15th century.

Machu Picchu was a site that contained gardens, terraces, ceremonial buildings, and palaces. Hundreds of steps connected the terraced gardens with aqueducts, fountains, and bath buildings throughout the land. Skeletons excavated from the site show that the female-male ratio was 10:1, which led to the belief that Machu Picchu was a site of sun worship and sanctuary for women, known as the Virgins of the Sun. Furthermore, there is evidence of a stone structure known as Intihuatana (Hitching Post of the Sun), which is thought to have been a device for calculating dates and solstices.

The sun was an essential element of culture in this community. Solar observations appeared to be hosted at the Tower of the Sun, constructed with unique windows oriented to capture the sun's sun at winter solstice. Inti Raymi, an Inca sun festival, is known to have occurred at this location during solstices. 
 The most remarkable aspect of Macchu Picchu is its impressive stonework on which white granite blocks are laid without mortar. The stones are locked together in an intricate way where their edges connect perfectly to fit into one another. This has allowed the buildings to stay strong and stand to this day. [Read More]

Marilyn Monroe's Life of Fame Had a Tragic Behind-the-Scenes

by Siwoo Park, age 12

Marilyn Monroe was one of the most iconic film stars of the 1950s, and to this day, she remains a timeless image of beauty and style. Her rise to Hollywood fame was a “rags-to-riches” story, but was her reality all fame and glory?

Norma Jean Baker, later known as Marilyn Monroe, was born on June 1st, 1926. She was the daughter of Gladys Baker, who was a film editor for RKO Pictures. Unfortunately, Gladys’ mental state worsened after Norma’s birth, and she was transferred to a mental institution. During her childhood, Norma was put in orphanages and foster homes.

In 1941, Grace McKee Goddard, a friend of Gladys Baker, took Norma in as she could no longer afford to help her. Norma’s best alternative was to get married at the age of 16 to her 21-year-old neighbor. She married James Dougherty in 1942, but he joined the Merchant Marines and was sent to the South Pacific. [Read More]

Learn About Real Madrid's Century Long Soccer Success

by Juanes Palma, age 11

Real Madrid is a professional soccer team that has dominated European soccer at a level that exceeds many other teams. The complete name is Real Madrid Club de Futbol. They are also called Los Blancos, meaning “the whites” in English.

Real Madrid branched off from another team founded in 1897 in Madrid, Spain. It wasn't until 1902 that Real Madrid was officially founded. The team has had countless achievements since then. When the European Cup was first held in 1955-56, Real Madrid was the tournament’s first winner and continued to dominate the scene yearly.

On their team, they have had superstar players like Ferenc Puskas, Alfredo di Estefano, Paco Gento, Hector Rial, Miguel Muñoz, David Beckham, Luis Figo, Ronaldo, Zidane, Kaka’, and Cristiano Ronaldo, to name a few. They won five European Cups in a row. One of the teams they played against was Germany, winning 7-3 in 1960. [Read More]

Chief Buffalo: A Leader's Legacy in Preserving Ojibwe Rights

by Ian Kosharek age 11

Kechewaishke, known as Chief Buffalo, was the tribal leader of the Lake Superior Ojibwe people. He lived in La Pointe, which today is known as Madeline Island. Kechwaishke was born in 1759 and died in 1855.

Kechewaishke played a major role in signing treaties between the U.S. government and the Ojibwe tribe. He was well known for his work to conserve lands for Native Americans in Wisconsin, resisting attempts by the U.S. government to take away territories. Kechewaishke and the tribe peacefully protested against the U.S. government. His people valued and recognized his ability to speak publicly, and other Ojibwe tribes in the area began to recruit him as a spokesperson to negotiate treaties with the government.

Kechewaishke served as an authority figure who represented Ojibwe tribes in the Lake Superior region for the treaties of 1837 and 1842. In these treaties, he wrote letters describing his discontent with the United States government and its actions to gain control of native land to access lumber and other natural resources. At 93 years old, Kechewaishke even went to Washington, D.C., with other tribal leaders to speak about the injustices they faced by the government with President Millard Filmore. [Read More]

The History Football: A Rough and Thrilling U.S. Tradition

by Ermiyas Abiy, age 8

Football is a very interesting sport and fun to play! Lots of people like football and you might like playing football too. However, let me warn you, it is a very rough game. Football's first-ever game was in 1865. Rules for college football were made two years later and the very first NFL game was played in 1895.

When a match is played, it starts with a kickoff. The kickoff team kicks the football to the receiving team. One player from the receiving team catches the ball and must run it to the other side of the field – but here is where the game can get physical. The kickoff team can do anything they want. They can tackle, throw down, or push the ball carrier out of the sidelines. When the football goes out of the sidelines, it is called out of bounds.

The grassy football field is in the shape of a rectangle and is 120 yards long. For a team to score a touchdown, they must bring the football to their opponent’s endzone on the other side of the field, where they score six points. But while going down the field they have four tries, known as “downs”, to move the ball at least ten yards. Both offense and defense teams have 11 players on the field. [Read More]

How the Danish Resistance Fought Nazi Occupation with 'Illegal' Newspapers

by Allison Wallace, age 11

On April 9, 1940, Germany officially invaded and occupied Denmark, a small country in northern Europe that could not hold its own for very long. Most Danes opposed the occupation, so the Danish resistance was formed.

The Danish resistance comprised mostly young people who believed in Denmark's freedom. To update civilians on the resistance's latest news, multiple "illegal" newspapers were formed. One of the most well-known was De Frie-Danske, which translates to the Free Danes. These newspapers kept people up to date on what was going on, such as bombing Nazi supply trains and what was taking place in the war outside of Denmark. Since newspapers were deemed illegal, people often burned them after reading them. Danes kept a lot of other secrets, too. One way they accomplished this was through the use of code.

This was necessary because if the wrong people at the wrong time were to overhear them, there would be consequences. One example comes from a scene in the book Number the Stars by Lois Lowry, set during the Danish resistance. It has a character on the phone who uses cover words such as "going fishing" and "bringing cartons of cigarettes" to hide what they were actually doing, helping a Jewish character escape to Sweden by boat. [Read More]

The “Mataafa Blow” of 1905 was Lake Superior’s Greatest Storm

by Will DeFour, age 13

Lake Superior has sunk over 500 ships, claiming an estimated 30,000 lives. This lake's ability to sink ships is primarily attributed to the terrifying storms that terrorize its mountain-like waves. With hail storms, frigid waters, and winds reaching 70 miles an hour, it's no wonder this lake has taken so many lives. Some ships have become famous, such as the Edmund Fitzgerald, but one legendary storm sank almost 20 boats in just two days.

On November 27, 1905, this behemoth of a storm hit Lake Superior, caused by a low and high-pressure system violently hitting each other. Some captains foolishly tried to brave the storm. Those who attempted had to retreat to their harbors or sink thousands of feet below. Capt. Richard F. Humble of the Mataafa decided to brave the storm, not knowing that the sheer weight of this storm would soon humble him.

On the first day of the storm, after 12 hours of winds reaching hurricane speeds, Humble realized that there was no way he could face the weather. With snow falling so quickly that he could not see anything beyond the ship, the crew made their way closer to shore. The captain said, "The sea [Lake Superior] had become so large that it was running over our decks on both sides." Humble, with his back to the storm, decided to sail back to his home port as quickly as he could, unaware of the horrors that would await him there. [Read More]

How Local People Maintain the Great Mosque of Djenne in West Africa

by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 16

Djenne is one of the oldest towns in sub-Saharan Africa. Dating back to 250 BC, it grew as an essential connection in the trans-Saharan gold trade and is described as the "Twin City" of ancient Timbuktu. Djenne's rich past is an integral part of Islamic history. It was a center for the spread of Islam in Africa in the 15th and 16th centuries. Djenne continues to be a representative of Islamic architecture in sub-Saharan Africa.

Ancient architecture in West Africa uses Earth elaborately. It is home to an abundance of clay houses that blend into its natural surroundings and is the largest earthen mud structure in the world. Every spring, there is a festival that brings the entire town population together to celebrate faith and heritage. This festival is called the Crepissage or the "plastering."

The residents of Djenne work together every year to replaster the Great Mosque. Like the town's traditional clay homes, the mosque contains earthen mud walls coated with adobe plaster. The Sudano-Sahelian architecture, the original structure of the mosque, is believed to have been built around the 13th century. The mosque has been reconstructed at least twice. [Read More]

Learn About the Armored Giant of the Dinosaur World

by Ermiyas Abiy, age 8

The Ankylosaurus was an armored dinosaur species that became extinct long ago. It was the heaviest armored dinosaur in the world. Surprisingly, there were spikes in their skin, too! With its solid and durable plates, this herbivorous dinosaur was very hard to attack and quickly defended itself. Their plates served as protection against carnivores, and male Ankylosaurs also used them in self-defense against other males to win over their mates.

There were two main sub-species of the Ankylosaurus: nodosaurs and ankylosaurs. Ankylosaurs had wider spikes than the nodosaurs. Most Ankylosaurus were about the size of a military tank, weighed about 10,000 pounds, and were 30 feet long. Scientists believe that this enormous dinosaur could move three miles an hour, which is no faster than a human walking. This may come as a surprise, considering it was a dinosaur.

The Ankylosaurus had a cube-like rock at the end of its tail that could swing at any predator in danger. This tail could be turned with such force that it could break an ancient crocodile's bones with just one blow. These dinosaurs lived for a long time through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. Ankylosaurus fossils have been found on almost every continent, including Antarctica, but not Africa! The Ankylosaurus went extinct 70 million to 66 million years ago. [Read More]

Wisconsin's Long History of Schools for the Blind and Deaf

by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 16

Most students know how to read and write, but these tasks are difficult or even impossible for students who can’t see or hear. Parents in Wisconsin have sent their visually impaired children to special schools to be educated since the 1800s.

Before Wisconsin was a state, citizens had already noticed that educational facilities for visually and hearing impaired children needed to be provided. In 1843, Increase A. Lapham petitioned Congress to give funds to build schools for visually and hearing-impaired children, but nothing was done to make a change. The institution first began in Janesville when private citizens decided to create the first state school for impaired students. J.T. Axtell, a graduate of the Ohio Institution for the Blind, arranged a village meeting explaining several methods to teach children with defective vision.

Thirty residents gave $430 to start a school and purchase construction equipment. In October 1849, eight visually impaired students attended the first school for the impaired in the state, held in a private home. They asked the Legislature to help fund their school, and landmakers approved. The school tax-supported a budget of $2,500 to keep the school running in its building. [Read More]

The Milwaukee Bucks' Historic Victory Over the U.S.S.R

by Zayn Khalid, age 13

The United States and the Soviet National team (U.S.S.R.) had one of the biggest basketball rivalries of the '70s and '80s, especially when the U.S. lost to the U.S.S.R. in the 1972 Olympic finals. Then 15 years later, the Milwaukee Bucks played the U.S.S.R., and the game was not even close.

In 1987, the Milwaukee Bucks beat the U.S.S.R. at the McDonald’s Basketball Open. The final score of the game was 127-100 with the Bucks leading by 50 points at some parts of the game. The win was the second of a three-day tournament.

The Bucks still dominated with three of their better players out, including Sydney Moncrief, who had just received knee surgery, John Lucas, and Rickey Pierce. The U.S.S.R. was also missing players like their dominant 7 '2 center Arvidas Sabonis, due to an Achilles injury, and his backup, Aleksandr Belosteni, who suffered a sprained left ankle. [Read More]

Theater Review: “What the Constitution Means to Me”

By Camila Cruz, age 16

Forward Theater’s production of “What the Constitution Means to Me,” directed by Jen Uphoff Gray, captures audiences with its unique approach to considering the United States Constitution.

Leading actress Colleen Madden of American Players Theater portrays playwright and protagonist Heidi Schreck in this autobiographical play. Madden opens the play by introducing herself as Heidi Schreck and explaining her connection to the Constitution. As a high schooler, Schreck competed in constitutional speech and debate contests, for which she earned college scholarships. At age 15, Schreck loved the Constitution and its study, and she felt deeply inspired by this “living document.”

The first part of the play revolves around 50-year-old Schreck “recreating” one of her high school competitions. She acts like her polite and invigorated 15-year-old self. But she also pauses her reenactment to comment on how her understanding of amendments and clauses has deepened through time and experience. [Read More]

Wisconsin History and the Invention of Typewriters

by Sedona Afeworki, age 15

Christopher Latham Sholes created the first practical typewriter in 1874, right here in Wisconsin.

He was born in Pennsylvania in 1819 after finishing his apprenticeship in newspapering and moved to Green Bay when he was 18 years old. There, he started working for his brothers at the Wisconsin Democrat as a publisher. Around a year later, his brothers promoted him to edit the Madison Enquirer. Sholes later moved to Kenosha and created the Southport Telegraph, which he worked on for seventeen years. He also worked in Wisconsin politics, organizing the Republican Party and Free Soil Party, which resulted in a successful campaign to outlaw the death penalty.

In the fall of 1867, Sholes created a working typewriter with the help of Matthias Schwalbach, a machinist, and Samuel Soule, an inventor. Later, he had a test race with the superintendent of the Western Union Telegraph; the superintendent was writing with his hand and Sholes using the new typewriter. In the end, Sholes was quicker in finishing the sentence. One would think it would give them more sales, yet that wasn’t the case. [Read More]

Teotihuacán, Mesoamerica’s City of Gods and Pyramids

by Edwin Torres, age 12

Teotihuacán was an ancient city in Modern-Day Mexico that was once known as Mesoamerica’s biggest city; the city was even bigger than Rome. Teotihuacán is an Aztec name meaning “place of the gods.” The population was around 50,000-100,000 people and the city covered an area over eight square miles. It was a sophisticated city, with religious buildings, wide streets, and private houses. According to local legend, it has been said that the sun and the moon were born in Teotihuacán. Not a lot is known about the daily life and customs of its people. However, we do know that the people of Teotihuacán praised certain gods. The rain god and the jaguar were two important figures for them. That was discovered by studying the engravings on religious temples. This civilization was advanced because of how carefully the city was built. They had a grid system that controlled the access to water.

Teotihuacán is dominated by two main pyramids: the Pyramid of the Moon and the Pyramid of the Sun. There are also two monumental public places at the heart of the city: the Citadel and the Great Compound. The Great Compound has two big platforms on several building stands. The Citadel played a religious role, approached by a stairway. The platform supported another pyramid, the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, which rose to about seventy feet in the tiers made of richly carved sculptures. The stone serpent heads coming from the tiers appear alarming to this day.

Local supplies such as obsidian were important for trading in a chiefly agricultural economy. The high-quality murals suggest that the people from Teotihuacán were good at art, but evidence of human sacrifice during the years of decline points to a more barbaric side of their culture. Nobody knows how Teotihuacán came to an end, but somewhere around the eighth century, the city had been burned and sacked. [Read More]

Hanno the Navigator Explored Africa's Coast in Ancient Times

by Aissata Bah, age 14

Hanno the Navigator, from Tunisia, Africa, was one of the most important explorers of the 5th century B.C. His journey down the coast of Africa, took him thousands of miles, as he mapped new landmarks.

It’s believed Hanno was a king and seemed to be born into a family fascinated with science, geography, and exploration. From his home city of Carthage, he sailed south in search of new resources and trading opportunities, bringing cultural exchange, an important aspect of African history.

Hanno sailed to various places in Africa. He was best known for his naval exploration off the western coast of Africa. However, the only record of his long voyage is in a periplus (manuscript), a document listing ports, coastal landmarks, and approximate distances. The ships in this era weren’t meant for rigorous sailing as they were made out of wood and had a single sail. Also, considering the technology and knowledge of the time, compasses weren’t used in sailing and instead, people had to depend on the stars for navigation. [Read More]

Wisconsin's Dairy History from Wheat Fields to Cheese

by Allison Wallace, age 11

When people think about Wisconsin, most individuals think of the dairy industry, however, that was not always the case.

The cattle industry landed in the U.S. in 1707. Some cows were brought to Wisconsin by the British-American fur trade. Unlike now, these were only beef animals. In 1838 dairy cows were introduced to the state. In the 1850’s and early 1860’s, the wheat industry was much bigger than its dairy counterpart. Not many people were selling dairy to a mass market. Dairy farmers mostly traded with local stores and neighbors and used milk, butter, and cheese in their households.

This changed in the late 1860s when wheat prices fell because wheat producers struggled due to overused land, crop diseases, chinchbug infestation, and lowering prices. This allowed the dairy industry to take off. [Read More]

Ancient Human Footprints Found in White Sands National Park Raise Questions

by Dani Garduno Martinez, age 11

Many people usually imagine mammoths, dinosaurs, and ancient beasts when considering fossils. However, a large majority of people miss an important category: human fossils. A recent discovery was made in White Sands National Park in New Mexico.

Many people down by the White Sands National Park have been buzzing with excitement because of the discovery of the human footprints. They were found and began to be studied in 2021. According to archaeologists, these fossils may be one of the oldest fossils that affirm humans originating from North America. Archeologists have been able to strengthen this argument since recent data shows that footprints have been there for 21,000 to 23,000 years ago. Yet some archeologists wonder if these fossils may really be from our ancestors from the Americas.

These human fossils may not be as old as they seem to be. Archeologists and scientists debate whether ancient seeds of aquatic plant life may have absorbed old carbon, making their original reported age invalid. In the process of finding fossils, they also found a big cluster of quartz grains and conifer pollen, which they used to confirm the original statement. [Read More]

How the Carlisle Indians Became a College Football Powerhouse

by Owen Ayite-Atayi, age 16

Richard Henry Pratt, an abolitionist, created a college football powerhouse team called the Carlisle Indians that dominated in the early 20th century. Pratt believed that Native Americans should be included in American society.

The Carlisle Indian Industrial School began in 1879 with Henry Pratt wanting to assimilate Native Americans into society. Pratt was dedicated to starting the school so he did just that, by making a journey into the Dakota territory to enroll students into Carlisle. Three years later, the students decided that they wanted to start a football team for the school which was called the Carlisle Indians.

The Carlisle Indians were a dominant team by 1907. The collegiate team knew how to operate and facilitate the game at an efficient pace. In one of Carlisle’s games, the Indians defeated the U.S. Army team, which included Dwight Eisenhower in its roster. In Carlisle’s former years, the school produced amazing talent which included Jim Thorpe and Glenn Scobey also known as “Pop”. [Read More]

Chichen Itza Blends Maya and Toltec Civilization

by Kimberly Rodriguez, age 11

In the tenth century AD, the Maya civilization lived in Chichen Itza. Located in Mexico, it was an important site to the Mayans and later to the Toltec warriors.

The Toltec warriors took over Chichen Itza from the Mayan people and made it a better version of their capital, Tula. The temple of the warriors contained countless carved objects like pieces of art, including jaguar and eagle motifs to represent the Toltec warriors. The Toltec warriors were a very strong civilization that conquered Teotihuacan. They ruled over Mexico from the mid-10th to mid-12th century AD

El Castillo is known as a pyramid temple dedicated to the ruler god Kukulcan. It is depicted as a feathered serpent deity and is carved along the staircase of the temple. Due to its detailed architecture, shadows of the staircase outline the serpent descending from the temple. The Mayans ' years cycle was also a very important part of their culture and they included it in the temple as well. [Read More]

Magellan's Expedition Was the First Circumnavigation

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

In 1519, Portugal was the first country to circumnavigate the globe. Some parts of the world could, but most were not able to circumnavigate past South America. Some parts of the world had advantages that allowed them to build ships, but other parts of the world were incapable due to the lack of resources. However, there was one person who eventually was able to circumnavigate, Ferdinand Magellan.

Becoming the first to circumnavigate the globe was not something on China’s list. Although the country was powerful and had the resources, they were more focused on protecting their people. The Barbarian invasion threat made China create better protection on its northern boundaries. Improving their protection meant rebuilding and extending the Great Wall. China’s multistoried ships were large, compared to Western ships. What stopped its people from being the first to circumnavigate the globe was the anti-marine policy that was made in the 1500s, making it a crime to build a ship with two masts or bigger, and if disobeyed would lead to death. China created this policy so none of its people could be in danger.

Apart from China, Arab Muslims wanted to be the first to circumnavigate but they faced challenges. Individual Muslims navigated the Indian Ocean for centuries which helped them master the shifting direction of the moon. Navigating the Indian Ocean made them discover that another sea, south of Africa, was linked to the Indian Ocean. The Arabian Peninsula could not produce wood, resin, iron, and textiles which were the essentials to building a ship. Not having these products gave them the defeat they did not want. Arab Muslims, not having the supplies needed, gave Spaniards an advantage. [Read More]

The Ghost Ship from a Christmas Past

by Sandy Flores-Ruiz, age 17

On Nov. 22, 1912, the Rouse Simmons embarked on its journey from Michigan to Chicago, carrying Christmas trees. However, as families gathered at the port, their anticipation turned to concern when the vessel failed to arrive. The absence of the ship cast a shadow over the hope for Christmas that year. Once full of life, the boat was now on the bottom of the lake.

The Rouse Simmons was a 123-foot ship built in Milwaukee in 1868. Its voyage that day was one of its dozens of tree deliveries. Captain Herman Schuenemann, affectionately known as Captain Santa, led this family business with unparalleled generosity, ferrying Christmas joy from Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Chicago.

Before departure, the captain's daughter sensed that something was wrong. She pleaded with her father to delay or delegate the task, but his determination to bring Christmas prevailed. Despite the ship's unsuitability to weather the formidable storm of the decade—riddled with leaks, rat infestations, and confronting winds raging at 60-80 mph in winter—he assured her of a timely return. Many of his crew members refused to board, so it was estimated that 16 or 23 men were on board. [Read More]

The Journey of Pelé, Brazil's Soccer Maestro

by Edwin Torres, age 12

Pelé has been considered one of the best soccer players in the world by many. He has been the only player to win three World Cups. How did he get the title “Best Soccer Player”? Well, we are going to have to go all the way back to his early life in Brazil.

Pelé, whose actual name was Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, was born in Três Corações, Brazil, on October 23, 1940. Pelé grew up in poverty, and was really passionate about soccer. Since he could not afford a good ball to practice with, he kicked a rolled-up sock stuffed with rags around his neighborhood. The kids in his neighborhood called him “Pele” for no specific reason. He did not like it, but the name stuck to him.

When he was a young teenager, he joined a youth team managed by a former player from Brazil’s soccer team. At age 15, Pelé left his home to join the Santos professional club, which was five hours away. A few months after he joined the club, he scored the first goal of his professional soccer career. The Brazilian national team spotted his spectacular skills on the field, and recruited him to play for the team at the early age of 16. [Read More]

Ray Charles: A Soulful Genius and Pioneer of Musical Innovation

by Atisse Robbins, age 12

Ray Charles was born September 23, 1930, in Albany, Georgia. Ray was a highly influential American musician who left an amazing mark on the music industry.

He was known as “The Genius.” Charles revolutionized popular music by seamlessly blending various genres such as rhythm, blues, gospel, jazz, and country. His extraordinary talent as a singer, songwriter, and pianist, combined with his innovative approach to music, earned him a lasting legacy as one of the most celebrated and respected musicians of the 20th century.

Ray Charles was born into a modest family and began losing his sight due to glaucoma at a young age. Despite this challenge, he displayed an early affinity for music by teaching himself how to play the piano by ear. The sounds of jazz, blues, and gospel-influenced Ray. Charles honed his musical style which would later spread worldwide. In the 1940s, Charles embarked on his musical journey performing in the vibrant Florida music scene. Inspired by jazz pianists like Art Tatum and Nat King Cole, he soon ventured into rhythm and blues, infusing it with gospel to create a soulful and expressive sound. [Read More]

The Life, Legacy, and Tragic End of Selena

by Elim Eyobed, age 12

Selena Quintanilla Perez or simply Selena was a bilingual singer and performer in the early 1990s, and was later murdered on March 31, 1995.

Selena was born on April 16, 1971. Selena’s father, Abraham Quintanilla Jr, practiced music, and her mother, Marcella Ofelia Samora, was a stay-at-home mom. Selena grew up in Lake Jackson, Texas, speaking English. Later on, her dad taught her how to perform songs in Spanish so she could start performing. When she was 10, Selena started singing for her family band, Selena Y Los Dinos. The band recorded seven albums all together and 31 singles.

In 1989, Selena decided to go solo. Her most popular songs were “Tu Solo Tu” which was No.1 on the charts for 10 weeks, and “Amor Prohibido” which reached No.1 for nine weeks. [Read More]

Muhammad Ali: The Unmatched Legacy of a Boxing Legend

by Iliyan Hoskins, age 10

Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr., more commonly known as Muhammad Ali, was a professional boxer who achieved many accomplishments, including an olympic gold medal in 1960 in Rome and a world heavyweight championship title. Throughout Ali’s career, he faced much success and controversy that would make him a household name.

On January 17, 1942, Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born in Louisville, Kentucky. He was named after his father Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr. Clay's mother was Odessa O’Grady Clay. Clay was born dyslexic, so it was hard for him to learn in school and it caused him some trouble throughout his life.

When Clay was 12, a thief stole his bike. Clay’s boxing coach, Joe E. Martin, and a police officer saw Clay upset over the incident and at that moment, Martin encouraged Clay to try boxing. [Read More]

The Ongoing Mystery of the Loch Ness Monster

by Will DeFour, age 13

Many urban legends have endured through the ages, whether it be monsters such as Bigfoot, Mothman, or the Yeti. However, while almost everyone has heard of these characters, their existence is debated. One of the oldest is the Loch Ness Monster, also known as Nessie.

The Loch Ness Monster's first recorded sighting was by an Irish Monk named Saint Columbia. According to legend, he banished the beast to the loch, a large body of water in Scotland, and the creature still lives there today. In 1933, the monster was sighted again and its most iconic photograph was taken.

Naturally, such a beast would inspire searches. Many investigations of the monster have occurred over the years. Though the task may sound easy, the loch is the largest body of water in Scotland at over 20 miles long and 750 feet deep. However, this summer, investigators conducted the largest search since 1972, with equipment that was far more advanced such as thermal drones. The search did not produce any evidence of the beast. However, there were reports of a dark shadow and strange previously undetected noises from the loch. The beast in question, unfortunately, was not sighted. [Read More]

The Tuskegee Airmen Broke Racial Barriers and Combat Records in World War Two

by Max Moreno, age 11

Some of the many unspoken heroes of American history during World War II are the Tuskegee Airmen, the first Black American pilots in the military.

Before the Tuskegee Airmen, Black Americans were not allowed in the Air Force due to racist Jim Crow laws that enforced segregation. But during WWII the U.S. needed pilots.

Even though the Civilian Pilot Training Program started training Black Americans in the 1930s, there were debates among leaders outside of the military regarding Black Americans serving in the Air Force. But the NAACP and other organizations fought for inclusion. [Read More]

Cleopatra: The Last Pharaoh of Egypt

by Haliah Berokwits, age 12

Well-educated, a world ruler, and an established diplomat. These are difficult feats to accomplish in any era, but somehow Cleopatra did them all, thousands of years ago. This is the story of how a woman came to lead Egypt.

Cleopatra’s dad, Ptolemy XII, led an ancient Greek dynasty that took over Egypt in 305 B.C. He favored Cleopatra over all her other siblings. When she was 18 she was crowned queen even though she was not the oldest. She co-ruled with her brother Ptolemy XIII as king and she as queen. It was very common back then for people to get married to their family members. Even though Cleopatra did not want to share the throne, she still married to honor traditions. The young king wanted the throne for himself and war raged. They both fled to different parts of Rome and quickly allied themselves with powerful people. Cleopatra turned to some of the most powerful men in Rome, one in particular, Julius Caesar, to help her regain full power in Egypt.

Caesar and Cleopatra had a huge age difference. Caesar was about 30 years older than Cleopatra and was also married. They had an affair, and out of love he lavished her with gifts and gave her almost anything she wanted. In 47 B.C. Cleopatra’s brother and co-ruler drowned in the Nile River. She then married her 12-year-old brother Ptolemy XlV following tradition. [Read More]

The Grand Canyon's Last Mule Mail Route

by Dulce Vazquez, age 15

A few people living in the Grand Canyon still receive mail through mules. This is most likely one of the last official mail through mule routes in the world, according to Daniel Piazza, the patron curator of philately at the Smithsonian National Postal Museum.

Mail has been delivered by mule since 1930. Mules still carry mail to people who live in Supai, located in the Grand Canyon, outside of National Park Service jurisdiction. Supai is only accessible by hiking, taking a helicopter, rafting down the Colorado River, or by riding a mule: Mule trips take three to five hours down and back up.

Mules carry a limit of 200 pounds at a time while delivering items. This is why only one or two mules are on route every day. Mail is not the only thing being delivered by mule: food is also delivered. The majority of deliveries by mule is food, according to Piazza as a lot of people live approximately 45 minutes away from the nearest town. The U.S. Postal Service has a lot of dedication to their deliveries. [Read More]

Exploring the Family Life of the Aztecs

by Marco Gonzalez, age 9

In Mesoamerica, Aztec culture had many interesting practices and beliefs. Their family life was especially important, even though some of its characteristics might seem strange today.

The Mesoamerican culture considered it important for married couples to have kids. Aztec parents would have big celebrations that would last over a day when their baby was born. They would also wait to name their newborns until the celebration. During labor, women were helped by neighbors and other local women since they had no midwives. After giving birth, the mother would wash herself and her newborn in the river or the closet body of water, and the umbilical cord was kept in the house.

The Mesoamerican male's responsibilities included supporting his family and his government through his hard work and paying taxes. Young women were taught to do chores such as weaving and cooking while young men often followed their fathers while they worked. One of the main roles of an Aztec female was to raise children until they were ready to leave the home and marry. [Read More]

The History and Evolution of Majorette Dancing

by Atisse Robbins, age 12

Majorettes encompass more than just dancing; they hold a significant cultural role, particularly in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), as a tribute to Black culture.

The first majorette performance, known to history, occurred in 1968 at the Orange Blossom Classic in Florida. Alcorn State University introduced the first majorette group, the Golden Girls, composed of eight dancers. Originally, majorettes were carnival performers who skillfully manipulated their batons. Originating as Dansmarietjes, this style made its way to the American South and evolved into the HBCU tradition we recognize today.

Majorettes incorporate various dance styles like jazz, hip-hop, ballet, burlesque, kick lines, and bucking to both entertain audiences and pay homage to those who paved the way. At Alcorn State University, Junior Jakayla Loften is a member of the Golden Girls, and she credits her participation to personal growth, both as a dancer and as a woman. [Read More]

Arizona’s Beautiful and Mysterious Apache Trail

by Mahalia Pearson, age 12

The Apache Trail was completed through the Superstition Mountains in 1911, but construction began in 1904. These two landmarks are located in Arizona. The roughly 40-mile trail was used for stagecoaches by the Mexican, Spanish, and American settlers. The settlers learned the trail from the Native Americans who resided in the area. The trail was named after the Apache Native Americans and other Native American tribes.

The Apache Trail, also known as Route 88, is hard to drive on due to the poor conditions of the road. While driving on the road, people experience deserts, sharp turns, and steep hills. Visitors should be cautious of possible landslides or cliffs that may make it easy for one to fall off.

The trail is currently closed and has been closed for three years due to fires, floods, and landslides. The Woodbury fire burned down 120,000 acres of land and left a burn scar. That part of the trail has been closed because of the risk of having another landslide. Since the trail is closed, drivers must take another route that takes two times longer to reach their destination. [Read More]

Secrets of the Ice: Archaeologists Discover Ancient Arrowhead inside a Melting Glacier

by Camila Cruz, age 15

As glaciers begin to melt, archaeologists in Scandinavia are discovering artifacts that help them learn more about the past. Recently, researchers found a well-preserved 1,500-year-old arrow, in what they believe is an ancient hunting ground.

The archaeologists who discovered the arrow are part of “Secrets Of The Ice”, a group of scientists and glacial archaeologists in Norway who explore and pinpoint glaciers. This arrow is not just any arrow. Not only is it believed to be older than the Vikings that inhabited the land from roughly 800-1100 AD, but it is also extremely well preserved.

The arrow was found between two rocks in Norway in an area where ancient people likely hunted reindeer. The archeologists think that the arrow was lost in the snow when one of the hunters missed a shot. Archaeologists believe the arrow was frozen into a glacier, and when the glacier melted it made its way down to where it was found. The fletching which helps stabilize the arrow while it’s flying is gone, but the arrowhead is still attached to the shaft, which is a unique discovery. [Read More]

Remembering Jim Brown: NFL Legend's Impact Beyond Sports, from Athletics to Activism

by Katina Maclin, age 17

Jim Brown, two-time NFL champion and four-time league MVP, recently passed away. Although he was well-known for his achievements in the NFL, his impact reached far beyond the world of sports.

Jim Brown was born in 1936 in St. Simons Island, Georgia. Growing up, he was an athletic and versatile young man. He attended the University of Syracuse in New York, where he was a star football and lacrosse athlete. He shined both on the field and in the classroom, as he was deemed an excellent student.

Drafted by the Cleveland Browns in the first round, Brown prospered in the NFL, quickly becoming a Star. He gained many awards and was named All-Pro eight times. He made himself a well-known name in pro football. [Read More]

Exploring the Award-Winning Restoration of the 1868 Brisbane House in Arena, Wisconsin

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 13

The historic Brisbane House in Arena, Wisconsin, is renowned for its builder's past. William Henry Brisbane, known as an "abolitionist," faced significant scrutiny when he embraced this cause and subsequently relocated from his Southern home state.

Born on October 12, 1806, Brisbane began his journey as a cadet at the Norwich Military Academy in Norwich, Vermont. He later inherited 33 enslaved individuals from his family. While residing in a South Carolina house with his slaves, Brisbane underwent a transformation in his beliefs, recognizing the inherent wrongfulness of slavery. He made the courageous decision to set his slaves free, a move that garnered heavy criticism and disdain from his community. Nonetheless, this opposition did not deter him from persisting in his human rights campaign. To escape judgment and pursue his cause, Brisbane left South Carolina and settled in what is now Arena, Wisconsin, embarking on a new chapter in his life.

Brisbane harbored grand plans to construct a house where he could reside and eventually provide accommodation for others after his passing. The house was built in the "I-style," a design Southerners transported with them when they migrated North. Characterized by its towering structure and an interior adorned with numerous large windows that facilitated excellent ventilation in the summer, the house also featured tall doors. Remarkably, the house still stands in good condition. [Read More]

The Dead Sea's Lifelessness, Ancient Wealth, and Healing Wonders

by Kevin Chen, age 15

Though the Dead Sea sounds like a scary place, the same reasons this body of water can not support plant or animal life made it a valuable resource in the ancient world. Back in the Roman era (476 C.E.), salt was considered highly valuable, so much so that Roman soldiers would be paid in salt, instead of money. The Latin word “salary” came from the word “salt”.

The Dead Sea, actually a lake, has had different names throughout history such as the Salt Sea and the Sea of the Plain. It is one of the four saltiest bodies of water in the whole world, containing up to 10 times as many minerals and salts as most oceans. Due to its high salinity, there are not any plants or animals that inhabit the Dead Sea. This excessive amount of salt and mineral concentration is because of the warm climate which causes water to evaporate. This drastically reduces the water-to-salt ratio in the lake. The lake is so salty that people can float on it.

The Dead Sea has also been known to have healing powers. The salt and minerals in the lake can be beneficial for skin diseases. The oxygen rate is 5% higher than most places on Earth, which can also help those with asthma and arthritis. The black mud found around the Dead Sea was once used as soap in ancient Greece because it could penetrate pores and nourish the skin. Now, multiple hotels around the Dead Sea provide an opportunity to try the benefits of the world’s first health resort. [Read More]

The History of Pringles Chips

by Moore Vang, age 14

In the 1950s, the company Procter & Gamble wanted to design a chip that

did not break, had flavor and had a new shape. After nearly a century, Pringles has generated popularity around the world and is one of the best chips out there.

A chemist named Fredric Baur created the design of the Pringle, which was [Read More]

Lake Chad: A Vital Ecosystem and Historic Hub of Civilization

by Dayanis Torres-Cruz, age 13

Lake Chad is made up of 17,000 square kilometers of fresh water located at the midpoint of dunes that stretch across Nigeria, Niger, Chad, and Cameroon. Lake Chad has a rich history, but scientists say that the lake's water level changes based on rain and dry seasons, and its habitat surroundings are changing.

The ecosystem in Lake Chad has a variety of open waters, some permanent and others temporary. These bodies of water contain helpful nutrients that sustain the biodiversity in the lake. Many animals, such as hippopotamuses, Nile crocodiles, tortoises, sea turtles, otters, a few native birds, migratory birds, and about 120 types of fish all call Lake Chad home.

Historically, Lake Chad was settled around 500 BC at the earliest. The ancient Sao civilization had a deep history and connection to Lake Chad. Their history traces back to the Paleolithic age and it is believed that the Sao civilization came to Lake Chad from the Nile valley around the fifth century. The Sao civilization, one of the oldest known, left remains of architecture, showing that they lived by fishing and farming, and were very creative people. [Read More]

Beneath the Pacific Ocean: Explorers Find Japanese Ship Sunk During World War Two

by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

On April 18, 2023, a Japanese shipwreck was located in the South China Sea. This was Australia’s largest death at sea during World War II.

This scary story begins with the ship: Montevideo Maru, which was carrying both prisoners and civilians that were taken during the Battle of Rabaul in Papua New Guinea. The Sturgeon, an American submarine shot four torpedoes after watching the ship all night on July 1, 1942. It took less than 10 minutes to sink.

That night, 1,080 lives were taken. Those people were from 14 different nations. More than 90% of the people who died were Australian. Family members waited years for letters from their missing family members on board, only to find out that their loved ones had drowned. [Read More]

What was Life Like in the Ice Age?

by Kaleab Afeworki, age 11

The Ice Age was a cold time period where wooly mammoths roamed free, sea levels were at bay, and isthmuses served as a natural means of transportation.

Historically, there have been five major Ice Ages, with the first dating 2.3 billion years ago. During the first Ice Age, a huge layer of ice that was more than 650 feet thick encoated one-third of the Earth. Today, leftover ice still covers Greenland and Antarctica.

The book World History Encyclopedia states, “Since the Quaternary Ice Age, there have been 17 glacial (cold) and 17 interglacial (warm) periods.” Ice Ages start from the Earth changing its direction in its path as it orbits the Sun. The first Ice Age was called the Huronian Glaciation. Right now, we are living in the Holocene, a geological time period that began 11,700 years ago after the most recent major Ice Age. [Read More]

120-Million-Year-Old Dinosaur Fossil Sheds Light on Bird Evolution

by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, 15

Scientists have just discovered a 120-million-year-old fossil that could help us learn more about landbound dinosaurs and their evolution into flying birds.

The Cratonavis Zhui bird was revealed to have a dinosaur-like head and a body similar to that of today's birds.

This bird originated from the northeast region of China. CT scans found its skull to be nearly identical to that of a theropod dinosaur, similar to the Tyrannosaurus Rex. The Chinese Academy of Sciences reports that the Cratonavis skull had not evolved its mobile upper jaw like other birds. [Read More]

Milwaukeean becomes first Black woman mathematician to have her papers in Library of Congress manuscript collection

by Hanna Eyobed, age 17

Gloria Ford Gilmer was an expert at ethnomathematics: how math manifests itself into the lives of cultures all around the world. She was a Black woman who dedicated her life to math: both the learning and teaching of it.

Gilmer received many of her accolades after her passing in August 2021. A historian of science and technology at the Library of Congress’ Manuscript Division, Josh Levy, reached out to Gilmer's family to uncover work that had been stored away. Gilmer left a legacy of success and transcending the odds; her files, documents, photographs, and VHS tapes were held in 64 bankers boxes and are now maintained in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress, an honor that has not been held by a Black woman before her. Her work is now able to be examined and used for further research for other historians to explore for educational purposes.

Gilmer paved the way for Black intellectuals to follow. With her concentration in ethnomathematics, Gilmer taught all over Milwaukee, including the Milwaukee Area Technical College, the University of Wisconsin- Milwaukee, and various Milwaukee public schools. She was the first Black educator in many of the spaces she entered. There were many firsts in Gilmer's career, such as first Black person to earn a doctorate from Marquette University, first Black woman to sit on the Board of Governors for the Mathematical Association of America, and first Black woman to have her papers kept in the Library of Congress’ Manuscript Division. [Read More]

The African Kingdom of Kush Lasted Almost 2,000 Years

by Anissa Attidekou, age 13

In Africa's vast and storied history, the Kingdom of Kush is a shining example of the continent’s rich and diverse civilizations. The kingdom was established in what is present-day Sudan. Kush thrived from 800 BCE to 300 AD for over a thousand years. The kingdom of Kush rose to become a formidable power in Northeast Africa, leaving an indelible mark on the region’s history.

The Kush developed a distinct culture that was influenced by Egypt and Rome. Two of its major cities are located in the White and Blue Nile. Pharaohs were drawn to the kingdom's resources and launched their military to capture them. The Kush people worshiped similar gods and practiced identical rituals such as mummification and pyramid-building. Egypt was eventually weakened by outside invaders and Kush became independent around 1,800 BC.

Kush’s prosperity was deeply rooted in its control of trade routes. Its position allowed it to be a trading link between the civilizations of the Mediterranean and those of sub-Saharan Africa. This trade brought wealth and cultural exchange that developed the kingdom. [Read More]

Remembering Toni Morrison, USPS to Honor Renowned Novelist with Commemorative Stamp

by Riya Adhikari, age 11

Toni Morrison was a famous novelist who wrote non-fiction books about African Americans. She passed away on August 5th, 2019 at the age of 88 years old.

The United States Postal Service (USPS) is designing a stamp in honor of Toni Morrison. She wrote about the struggles of being an African American in the United States and created a voice for many people.

Toni Morrison's writing was beautifully created and artistically worded. Some of her most famous novels are “Beloved,” “The Bluest Eye,” and “Song of Solomon.” After writing some of her best work, she taught literature and writing at Princeton University for 17 years. [Read More]

Tony Bennett's Remarkable Basketball Journey from Player to NCAA Championship Coach

by Owen Atayi, age 15

Tony Bennett is currently a National College Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball head coach for the Virginia Cavaliers. However, Bennett isn’t simply just a coach; he was first a great basketball player.

Anthony Guy Bennett was born June 1, 1969, in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Growing up, Bennett enjoyed playing the game of basketball. In high school, Bennett was a six-foot point guard who attended Green Bay Preble High School. After high school, Bennett made a big jump to college basketball where he represented his father, Dick Bennett on the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay Phoenix men’s basketball team.

In college, Bennett averaged 21.5 points per game as a junior and 20.2 points per game as a senior. Bennett wasn’t just your ordinary basketball player. He shot a whopping 51 percent from the three-point range. Bennett finished off his college career in 1992 and was named Mid-Continent Conference’s all-time leader, along with many other NCAA accolades. [Read More]

Catherine the Great Reformed Russia with an Iron Fist

by Haliah Berkowitz, age 12

Catherine the Great was a German princess, who married the Grand Dux Peter, and did many amazing things for her country. She also died in a way not many would imagine.

Catherine married the Grand Dux of Russia, heir to the Russian throne, and became Empress Catherine the Great. However, their relationship was one-sided. She often found Peter unattractive and weak because of various illnesses saying, ”I should have loved my new husband if only he had been willing or able to be in the least loveable.” The rift in their relationship grew bigger. They both supported different political ideas. Catherine even had an affair with the man who eventually would take over the throne.

Born a German princess by the name Sophia Augusta Frederika Von Anhalt-Zerbst, she changed her name to Catherine when she married to have a more Russian name. Her husband was a king named Peter the Great. He founded St. Petersburg, a city in Russia in 1703. He led Russia to victory against Sweden in the Battle of Poltava in 1709. [Read More]

Scientists Find T-Rex Ancestor in Montana

by Mariama Bah, age 16

Archaeologists in northeast Montana have uncovered fossils that may link to ancestors of the mighty Tyrannosaurus rex (T. rex).

Fossils of Daspletosaurus wilsoni, the speculated ancestor of the T. rex, were found in Valley County, Montana. In 2017. Jack Wilson, a crew member at the Badlands Dinosaur Museum, noticed a small bone protruding from a cliff in the Judith River Formation. Between then and 2021, multiple fossils were found.

Torosus, the first species of the Daspletosaurus genus was uncovered by Charles M. Sternberg, a Canadian paleontologist, in 1921. Sternberg originally classified the fossils as a species of Gorgosaurus, a smaller tyrannosaurid dinosaur whose fossils were also found in Alberta, Canada. But it wasn’t until 1970 when fellow Canadian paleontologist, Dale Russell, classified the fossils under Daspletosaurus, which had a heavier build and larger body. [Read More]

How Humans Harnessed Fire

by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

Fire, a chemical reaction, is the burning of a combustible substance with oxygen, fuel, and heat. The reaction radiates heat and light. There are various uses for fire such as to cook food, to keep warm, and to light a candle. However, how did early humans use fire to their advantage?

The first proof of fire dates to around 440 million years ago, before human existence. Millions of years later, the ancestors of early humans called “hominins” discovered how fire could be used once they moved to the african savannas. However hominins were not the first to discover fire; in reality, no one did. Instead, there were chemical reactions that kept happening in the grasslands, which resulted in many wildfires. Instead of trying to invent it, hominins tried to control fire and some archeologists believe that the hominins learned to do so and maintain flame around 2.5 million years ago. But there was no apparent evidence to prove this theory. While stone tools can still be found by archaeologists many years later, the presence of fire cannot be tracked in early history.

By observing the behavior of animals today, researchers have attempted to explain how hominins first used fire. For example, different types of birds and even chimpanzees in the savanna take advantage of the newly mobilized and visible prey. [Read More]

A Rare Piece of Wisconsin History: Most Expensive Bike Ever Sold at Auction

by Jules Da Costa, age 15

The most expensive bike ever sold at an auction was a 1908 Strap Tank Harley-Davidson, which happens to be a rare piece of Wisconsin history.

Manufactured in Wisconsin, the 1908 Harley-Davidson was sold at an auction for $935,000, after the auction fees. The motorcycle was sold at the end of January at the Mecum Auction in Las Vegas. The 1908 that sold is suspected to be one of 12 to ever be made. A 1907 Strap Tank was sold for $715,000 in 2015, making it the fifth most expensive bike sold at an auction.

The 1908 Strap Tank is one of the most unique models in Harley-Davidson history and is considered the earliest model most people can find. This model is most known for its features and original parts. It was given the name “Strap Tank” because of how its fuel tank is connected by nickel straps. As a result of these one of a kind features, these motorcycles can be very difficult to find and are rarely sold at auctions. [Read More]

William Bebee Pushed Barriers in Scuba Diving

by Marie Pietz, age 11

Exploring the sea is something that most of us don’t think about, but it’s important to understand the dangers of it as well as seeing how it can be successfully accomplished.

A common danger is running out of oxygen. This may happen because the diver has gone too far down underwater and does not have enough time to return to the surface. Another massive danger is the pressure underwater, which can crush and kill the diver. This may happen because the pressure is so high that it crushes the bathysphere, an old kind of submarine that was used throughout the 1930s.

William Bebee was man on a mission to break many records, especially those in the science field. William was born in Brooklyn, New York in the late 1870s, and in the 1930s he began breaking records in the New York Zoos. In 1934, he set the record for the deepest bathysphere descent at the depth of 3,028 feet. At the time many believed it was a bad idea. [Read More]

Quanah Parker Became a Famous Comanche Leader

by Sandy Flores-Ruiz, age 16

The last surviving chief of the Quahada Comanche Indian tribe was Quanah Parker. He was born in 1845 in Elk Creek, near Wichita Mountain, in what is today known as Oklahoma City. He is known for his resistance against white settlement and for his leadership in helping his community adapt to life on the reservation.

Quanah Parker’s birth resulted from a conflict between Native Americans and white settlers. His mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, was captured when she was child and later converted to the Native American way of life. She met Quanah’s father, Chief Peta Nocona, whom she later married. They had three children: Quanah, Pecos, and Topsana. However, Quanah’s childhood was a nightmare where he endured a long battle with the Texas Rangers. As a result of the battle, both his mother and sister were taken against their will. After being held captive for more than twenty-four years, Cynthia refused to re-assimilate. She committed suicide in 1871 after losing her daughter a couple of years earlier due to illness, leaving Quanah and his brother as orphans.

The Comanche tribe was very disorganized during Chief Peta Nocona’s leadership, nevertheless, many feared them. In fact, the tribe was one of the first to obtain horses from the Spanish. The Comanche established themselves as expert riders and set the pattern for nomadic horse culture life, which became common among plain tribes in the 18th and 19th centuries. When Quanah became chief, the Comanche were in almost a constant state of war with Mexico, Texas, and other Native American tribes. Quanah Parker led the tribe in a very successful battle and many believed in him because he was the son of a respected leader. [Read More]

Ghost Towns and Glaciers: The Legend of Kennicot

by Anissa Attidekou, age 13

Despite the fact that ghost stories can be scary, they are always interesting. The tale of this ghostly Alaskan glacier might give you a chill, but it will also get you hooked with its unique story.

This ghostly glacier was discovered and explored during the 1800s and site was eventually named the Kennicott Glacier. The mountains around the glacier are embedded with tons of copper. During the 1800s and 1900s, the rise of electricity and telephone use meant an increase in demand for copper wiring. After finding out about the Kennicott Glacier and its copper, several companies quickly built mines.

At its peak, these mining operations employed around 600 miners. They worked long hours every day. The miners produced a lot of copper allowing the owners of the mines to make a great amount of money. [Read More]

The Unique History of Lake Ivanhoe, Wisconsin

by Josepha Da Costa, age 18

This past summer, Lake Ivanhoe was one of 40 new historical markers to be designated in Wisconsin. It became only the 8th marker, out of 600, in the state to feature Black History. Peter Baker, a current resident who grew up in Lake Ivanhoe, “the safest place and the coolest place” he’d ever been in his life, played an important part in the process of celebrating this history. His tireless efforts for over 20 years finally made this commemoration possible.

Lake Ivanhoe was founded in 1926, in the town of Bloomfield, by three Black men from Chicago: politician Bradford Watson, business executive Frank Anglin, and attorney Jeremiah Brumfield. These men were looking for a summer vacation place to visit with their families to get away from the racial unrest in Chicago at the time, which was a result of the Great Migration. As Black people started frequently moving to the northern cities, specifically Chicago, segregation became increasingly prominent. Since Black people were not welcome in predominantly white resorts in neighboring places like Lake Geneva, they decided to create their own. This was where the first entirely Black owned community in Wisconsin was born.

The town’s streets were named after famous historical people like Crispus Attucks and Phyllis Wheatley. A large gazebo was built in the middle of town where the neighborhood families were able to hold cookouts, gatherings and concerts. For most of the 1920s, Lake Ivanhoe was a safe haven for Black families to reside and enjoy. However, after the stock market crash in the 1930s, the once lively resort quickly became abandoned. [Read More]

How One of China's Most Beautiful Attractions Saved Lives

by Sedona Afeworki, age 14

Where would be a good place to hide if something bad ever happened? The Guilin Hills is a place in China where many people hid during World War II and the following civil war when clashing armies turned the region into a battlefield. The hills also have a lot of caves, one of many ways they’ve played a role in Chinese history.

The Guilin Hills, which means “forest of cassia trees”, stands within the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region near the Li River in southern China. The Hills are part of the “limestone region”, which spreads from south-central China to Vietnam.

Between 1949 and 1973, Guilin was closed to most sightseers while Communist forces were in power. In 1973, it was reopened, and Guilin transformed into one of China’s most beautiful attractions. [Read More]

The End of Brazil's Soccer "Golden Age"

by Moore Vang, age 14

Brazil’s national team has had many achievements, beginning with winning their first-ever World Cup in 1958. Illustrator John Mulliken from Sports Illustrated wrote about their win saying, “Brazil itself went wild.” Brazil may have looked impressive, but in some people's eyes that was not the case. The French leader by the name of Charles de Gaulle in 1963 stated, “Brazil, that is not a serious country.” During this time many people doubted Brazil, but Brazil was very ambitious about soccer.

The sport first came to Brazil in 1894. The game originally came from Britain but spread to people of the lower class. A breakthrough came in 1923, when a club founded by Portuguese bankers in 1898 allowed poor black players to join their club. They went on to win a city championship that same year.

From 1938 to the 1990’s, Brazil experienced a golden era of soccer. In that time, it strengthened Brazil’s national identity. It even hosted the 1950 World Cup at the Rio Stadium, which was the world’s largest at the time. Even with the team’s great soccer skills, the country was still criticized as an underdeveloped nation. The sport of soccer elevated Brazil to a high level in the second half of the 20th century. [Read More]

From Bronx "Breaks" to L.A. Rap: The History of Hip-Hop

by Zayn Khalid, age 12

Hip-hop was created nearly fifty years ago. Many of us listen to hip-hop every day, yet many people don’t know its history.

It all started back in 1973 when, “DJ Kool Herc” threw a party for his sister in their apartment building on Sedgwick Ave in the Bronx, New York. He played a type of music called “breaks'', which included some drums, funky percussion, and bass put together. This was where hip-hop was born.

Being a DJ in hip-hop was all about moving your finger back and forth on the vinyl and being creative with it. Later it evolved. People started putting rhyming couplets, which are two-lined poems, in front of the music, then to triplets, three-lined poems, and then to multiple rhyming lines. However, people in Harlem and the Bronx did not believe that rap would ever be a real genre. That changed in 1979 when producer Sylvia Robinson gathered three kids and recorded rhymes over a beat that turned into the famous hit ”Rapper's Delight'' by Sugarhill Gang, which sold millions of copies. The lyrics in that song were stolen from lyrics they heard at parties. This angered many in the community because Sugarhill became known for something the community was already doing. [Read More]

Volcano Explosion Shoots Water into Space

by Theodore Morrison, age 15

A volcanic eruption that occurred in the Pacific Ocean on January 12, 2022 reserved itself a spot in history when it ejected its water vapor into space for the first time in recorded history.

This water vapor, erupting from the volcano Hunga Tonga, which awoke in December of 2021, disrupted the ionosphere, a layer of our planet's atmosphere, at levels emulating a solar geomagnetic storm. The water vapor, in addition to simply reaching space in an historic event, momentarily absorbed light particles. Additionally, the eruption generated unprecedented levels of lightning, generating a minimum of 400,000 lightning strikes during the event.

These findings, observed from NASA’s Global Ultraviolet Imager, were presented in a couple of scientific conferences, including some during a particular meeting in Chicago. The data shows that the eruption overpowered a geomagnetic storm in terms of effects. [Read More]

Who Created These Mysterious Pillars in Ireland?

by Jonah Smith, age 14

Strange pillars reside in County Antrim, Ireland. They have an unusual shape that appears to be man made. These tightly wedged pillars descend in tiers, in a staircase all the way down to the sea. These columns are mostly hexagonal, though the number of sides these structures have may vary. Although their shape implies that they are manufactured, the complete opposite is true.

There are similar structures such as the Giant’s Causeway in Scotland or Devil’s Tower in Wyoming. With having so many of these unexplained structures around the world, myths for how they were made arose. For the Giant’s Causeway, it is said [locally] that the Irish giant, Finn Mac Cool, drove the columns into the sea one by one so that he could walk to Scotland to fight his rival. These exciting stories theorizing their construction adds new life and attractiveness to these beautiful structures.

The creation of these abnormalities is way more complex than it might seem. During the period where North America and Europe recently split up, the new North Atlantic Ocean in between the two was still a developing feature. The northern area of both Europe and North America was in place, but the body of water still had to form the edges of these continents. The western coast of Greenland separated from Canada around 80 million years ago, but the southwestern coast was still firmly attached to the opposing northwestern coast of the British Isles. 20 million years later, these coasts began to separate and there were major volcanoes in place of a few Scottish islands. [Read More]

The Mammal that Helped Take Over the Globe

by Ayelen Flores Ruiz, age 12

Researchers have discovered a prehistoric mammal with a two to five years life cycle that they call the Manbearpig. The mammal’s short lifespan is likely due to their months-long pregnancy, a trait scientists believe helped mammals dominate the world after the extinction of the dinosaurs.

The name Manbearpig came from the features it contained: a face like a bear; a body similar to a pig; and five fingered hands. These mammals are also known by their scientific name, Pantolamba bathmodon, and were plant eaters. The Manbearpig lived about 62 million years ago. The Manbearpig was one of the largest mammals of its time and seemed to appear after the dinosaur extinction, which allowed mammals to grow to larger sizes than ever before. It was a member of the placental group of mammals, animals who do their prenatal development in the womb of their mother.

Researchers were able to discover how fast they would grow throughout their life from the enamel of their teeth, which looked different during different life stages. These mammals' lives were short and they died at a younger age than typical animals, between two and five years of life. The Manbearpig had a really short life cycle because it stayed in the womb for about seven months, a pregnancy much longer than is observed in modern marsupials, but similar to extreme modern placentals like giraffes and wildebeests. The most extreme modern placentals are usually walking within hours of birth, and usually only give birth to one baby per litter. This species nursed for one or two months after they were born. In a year, they would reach adulthood. The longest a Manbearpig was found to have lived was 11 years. [Read More]

From Modest Chateau to Palace Fit for Kings

by Ashley Mercado, age 14

King Louis XII originally chose Versailles, an area just outside of Paris, as the site for a modest hunting chateau. However, over the years it developed into something far more elegant.

“Louis” was a commonly chosen name for princes over many generations. To distinguish the different kings, roman numerals would be placed after their name to note who was who in order of their birth. Louis the XIV, also known as the Sun King, wanted to expand the chateau into a grand palace, and began construction on the project in 1661. Versailles became Louis the XIV’s permanent residence in 1682, and later the French court was established there. The heart of the building was the Hall of Mirrors—a big gallery of 17 windows that offered a grand view of the stunning gardens.

Louis XIV directed the architect Gabriel to do further work on the building, such as the addition of an opera salon and an additional palace called the Petit Trianon. Louis XVI added a library, and his wife Marie Antoinette took over the Petit Trianon. Two designers worked on Versailles. The original designer was Louis Le Vau followed by Jules Hardouin Mansart who assumed responsibility and worked on Versailles for 30 years. The one responsible for the landscaping of Versailles was Andrė Le Nȏtre. In October of 1789, revolutionaries angry at the rich due to colossal income inequality went to Versailles and caused great damage to the palace. [Read More]

Exploring the Architectural Wonder of Istanbul's Blue Mosque — by Mahalia Pearson, age 13

The Blue Mosque is located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is an architectural masterpiece constructed and preserved since the Ottoman Empire. Its unique design, both structurally and within its interior, makes it an attraction for people worldwide. [Read More]

Rosetta Nubin Was the Guitar-Playing “Godmother” of Rock and Roll — by Riya Adhikari, age 12

Rosetta Nubin was an incredible singer who mixed her church roots with the blues. Despite being dubbed "The Godmother of Rock and Roll," her achievements and diverse musical abilities remain relatively unknown. [Read More]

Battles and Behaviors of Prehistoric Beasts — by Iliyan Hoskins, age 10

Dinosaurs in prehistoric times had unique methods to catch their prey and protect themselves from predators. Fossil evidence has unveiled fascinating glimpses of battles among different dinosaur species, shedding light on their behaviors. [Read More]

The Wright Brothers: American Inventors and Pioneers of Aviation — by Max Moreno, age 10

In December 1903, Orville and Wilbur Wright, often known as the Wright brothers, built the first successful piloted aircraft. It was a propelled two-seater plane and flew 120 feet, lasting 12 seconds in the air. [Read More]

The Connection Between Animals and Ancient Egyptian Gods — by Marco Flores Gonzales, age 9

Did you know many Ancient Egyptian gods had animal heads? For example, Sobek had a crocodile head, Ra Harakitti had a bird head, and Anubis was a jackal. [Read More]

How Codebreakers Turned the Tide at Midway — by Shahad Al Quraishi, age 15

The Battle of Midway was a major turning point during World War II. It was a battle that ultimately altered Japanese plans and the fluctuation of power in the Pacific. The battle took place on a small island named Midway in the Pacific Ocean. At the time, this island was home to a United States base, but it offered the perfect location for Japan to station their own forces for an attack on Pearl Harbor. [Read More]

Behind the Deadly Hiroshima Bombing — <i>by Hiba Al-Quraishi, age 14</i>

On August 9, 1945, the United States ended World War II at a terrible human cost by dropping the “Fat Man” nuclear implosive bomb in Nagasaki. This was three days after the atomic uranium bomb named “Little Boy” had decimated Hiroshima. [Read More]

How Early Jazz Developed in New Orleans — by Aissata Bah, age 12

There are many opinions of what is important in jazz history, specifically in New Orleans. The musical genre contains history that takes roots in colonization, slavery and much more. [Read More]

Local Observatory Renamed For STEM Pioneer Jocelyn Bell Burnell — by Mariah Justice, age 17

“Astronomy compels the soul to look upward, and leads us from this world to another,” said Greek philosopher Plato. With the renaming event on September 7 for the Bell Burnell Observatory— previously the Oscar Mayer Observatory—Madison has a new facility for cultivating the exploration of astronomy. [Read More]

The Fire that Reached From Alberta to Pennsylvania — by Dyanara Flores-Gomez, age 14

In early June of 1950, a fire started in northern Alberta, Canada, and spread through northeastern British Columbia. It burned four million acres of land. This fire became the largest fire in North America and was named the Chinchaga fire. It was also known as the Wisp fire or Fire 19. [Read More]

The Viking Tale of Gudrid Thorbjarnardóttir — by Aissata Bah, age 12

If you know who Vikings were, you might think that the men were stronger, more courageous and adventurous than the women, but that is not the case. There is evidence that suggests Viking women were just as brave and capable as the men. One of those women was Gudrid. [Read More]

2.5-Yard Elephant Tusk Fossil Discovered in Israel — by Desteny Alvarez, age 17

Researchers in Israel recently found a 2.5-yard-long fossil that belonged to a long-extinct straight-tusked elephant. It is believed to be the largest fossil ever found at a prehistoric site in the country. [Read More]

Germany's Fairytale Castle Come to Life — by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 14

Neuschwanstein is a castle that is located in Germany, which took 17 years to construct. It took 15 men to carve the king's bed and it took them 4 ½ years to finish. Neuschwanstein was a fairytale brought to life. [Read More]

Low Water Levels in Mississippi River
Expose Artifacts and History — by Owen Ayite-Atayi, age 15

The Mississippi River is the second longest river in the United States and is 2,340 miles long. Although the Mississippi River is a majestic river, there are still many mysteries in this river, especially regarding its artifacts. [Read More]

Science Fiction Writer, Octavia Butler, Recognized by NASA — by Elim Eyobed, age 11

Who is your favorite writer? Hemingway? Shakespeare? Well, one great writer you may have never heard of is Octavia E. Butler. Butler was an esteemed African American author who was recently recognized by NASA for her groundbreaking talents. NASA scientists even named a Mars landing site after her. [Read More]

From Water to Land Back to Water Again: the Evolution of the Qikitania — by Giovanni Tecuatl Lopez, age 17

There are many speculations regarding evolution and how it took place. Many think of evolution as a linear timeline; but this is not always the case and such can be seen in creatures like the Qikitania and Tiktaalik. [Read More]

The Greatness of Hank Aaron — by Owen Ayite-Atayi, age 14

Hank Louis Aaron was one of the greatest African-American Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Hank was known for breaking Babe Ruth’s Hall Of Fame and Most Valuable Player (MVP) home run record. He hit 755 career home runs, to Ruth who racked up 714 hits for the Boston Red Sox. [Read More]

The Surprising History Behind Tulips — by Abigail Gezae, age 10

Tulips are popular flowers that come in several types, 75 to be exact. If you were wondering, the name tulip comes from the Turkish language. [Read More]

Mount Everest: The Colossal Climb — by Aarosh Subedi, age 10

Mount Everest is one of the Himalayas' tallest mountains in the world and lies in the continent of Asia. [Read More]

The Deadliest Hurricane in Honduras' History — by Dayanara Flores Gonzalez, age 14

Striking in 1974, Hurricane Fifi was one of the largest and most dangerous hurricanes in Honduras’ History. Hurricane Fifi swept through more than half of the people’s homes and left more than 100,000 to 150,000 people homeless. When the hurricane struck, thousands were left without food and shelter. [Read More]

How Submarines Sparked Arctic Exploration — by Daniel Li, age 14

Built-in 1952, the USS Nautilus was the first submarine ever powered by a nuclear reactor and, coincidentally, also the first to ever reach the North Pole by traveling under ice. William Anderson, the commander of the Nautilus, wrote in his logbook, “Embarked following personage at North Pole: Santa Claus, affiliation: Christmas.” Spending multiple days underwater had not seemed to affect the commander’s sense of humor. [Read More]

History of Argentina’s “Dirty War” Era — by Valeria Moreno Lopez, age 15

History classes often overlook the history of Latin countries. Sometimes that’s true no matter how tragic events were. Nearly five decades ago, Argentina’s military government unleashed a seven-year war against its own people. In what would become known as the Dirty War, thousands of victims mysteriously “disappeared.” Most were imprisoned, tortured, and murdered. [Read More]

The Mysterious Story Behind America's Lost Snow Cruiser — by Jazmin Becerril, age 14

During the United States Antarctic Expedition Service of 1939, an amazing new vehicle – unlike any other – was used. The creator, Thomas Poulter, came up with the idea for a huge mobile vehicle base after experiencing a near-death situation in which he was stuck at an Antarctic base due to the weather. He sold his idea to the Research Foundation of the Institute of Technology in Chicago, Illinois in the mid-1930s which agreed to design the vehicle under Poulter’s supervision. [Read More]

Two Lost Ships Discovered at the Bottom of Lake Michigan — by Jeremiah Warren, age 11

Can you imagine diving in a lake and finding a shipwreck? It’s estimated that there are 6,000 shipwrecks in the bottom of the great lakes. Bernie Hellstrom, a diver, was one who found two ships – Peshtigo and St. Andrews – in the depths of Lake Michigan. Both of these ships collided more than 140 years ago. [Read More]

Historians Study in Planet Earth’s Oldest Library — by Shahad Al Quraishi, age 15

The Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, also referred to by many as the first library in the world, is considered one of the most important creations in human history. The library, which is located in present-day Iraq near Mosul, was created and built by the sixth Neo-Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal. [Read More]

Learn the Tragic Story Behind the Monstrous Medusa — by Anissa Attidekou, age 12

Medusa: the most common thought would be a hideous woman with snakes for hair. Believe it or not, Medusa was not always like this. Her story is a long and heartbreaking one. [Read More]

What Life Was Like for Wisconsin's Early People — by Max Moreno, age 9

It is challenging to think about what life was like a thousand years ago. However, how about thinking all the way back to 10,000 years ago, when Wisconsin Natives were constructing living areas, tools, and mounds. [read more]

The Life of a Young Egypt King: King Tutankhamun — by Justin Medina, age 13

King Tutankhamun, better known as King Tut, was ancient Egypt’s youngest Pharaoh being only nine years old. He was largely erased from history until his tomb was discovered in the early 1900s. His tomb and mummy continue to be studied today using high-tech tools. [Read More]

The Tragic Story of Beautiful Egyptian Goddess Isis — by Emily Rodriguez Lima, age 13

Hieroglyphics depict tragically beautiful tales of the gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt such as Isis, whose myth brims with mystical magic, selfless healing, lethal wars, and even brooding beheadings. Historians uncovered her story through pyramid stones that date back to the 2350 and 2100 BCE period. [Read More]

Researchers Discover Secrets Within Ancient Library — by Ashley Mercado, age 13

We are still finding long-lost languages thanks to discoveries of researchers at ancient libraries. One of the world’s oldest libraries, Saint Catherine’s Monastery, is still in use today. Here, thousands of ancient texts were found. [Read More]

The History Behind Zodiac Signs — by Emily Bautista, age 13

Zodiac signs are a topic of mystery for many people. Many people do not know how they came to be or what they are used for. [Read More]

Behind Prince, the Dynamic Pop Legend — by Elim Eyobed, age 11

If you live and breathe air, you have definitely heard of Prince. His album, “1999”, almost singled him out as one of the greatest musicians of all time. Prince Rogers Nelson was born on June 7, 1958. His father, John Nelson, was a jazz pianist, and Mattie Nelson, his mother, was a vocalist. His life at home was not stable, so at the age of 12, he left and was adopted by the Anderson family. [Read More]